Saturday, October 10, 2009

Uzbekistan, History and Politics

Iranians nomads came to Uzbekistan in the first million BC, when they began to build an extensive irrigation system along the rivers in the region. Then came in 5th century BC the Bactrian, Samarkhand and Tokharian. Alexander the Great conquered Sogdiana and Bactrian in 327 BC, marrying Roxana, daughter of a local Bactrian Chieftain. But alixander could not proceed against fierce resistance. For centuries Uzbekistan was ruled by Iranian empires, including the Parthian and Sassanid empires. The Mongol conquest under Gengis Khan during 13th century. The brutal conquest and widespread genocide characteristic of the Mongols almost entirely exterminated the indegigenous Indo-iranian people of the region. Their culture and heritage being superseded by that of the Mongolian and Turkic peoples who settled the region after that. Later Timur, one tribal chieftain, became the defacto king of the region and initiated the last flowering of Mawarannahr by gathering in his capital. After the death of Timur the state rroke into two parts and in 1501 Uzbeks began a wholesale invasion of Mawarannahr.
In the 19th century, the Russian Empire began to expire and spread into Central Asia. The great game period is generally regarded as running from 1813 to the to the Anglo-Russian convention of 1907. Following the Bolshevik revolution of 1917, a seond less impressive period followed. On 27 Oct 1924, the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic was created which was dismantled in 1991 and 31 Aug 1991 uzbekistan got Independence.
The country is now the world's second largest exporter of cotton and it is developing its mineral and petroleum reserves.
Constitutionally, the Government of Uzbekistan provides for democracy. The executive holds a great deal of power and the legislature and judiciary have little power to shape laws. Under terms of a 27 Dec, 1995, referendum, Islam Karimov's first term was extended. Another national referendum was held on 27 Jan, 2002 to extend the constitutional Presidential term from 5 yrs to 7 yrs.
The referendum passed and Karimov'sterm was extended by the Act of the Parliament to Dec,2007. A bicameral parliament was enacted.

Parliament of Uzbekistan