Saturday, October 20, 2012

Indonesia - History, Colonial Period


The first regular contact between Europeans and the peoples of Indonesia began in 1512, when Portuguese traders, led by Francisco Serrão, sought to monopolize the sources of nutmeg, cloves, and cubeb pepper in Maluku. Dutch and British traders followed. In 1602 the Dutch established the Dutch East India Company (VOC) and became the dominant European power. Following bankruptcy, the VOC was formally dissolved in 1800, and the government of the Netherlands established the Dutch East Indies as a nationalized colony.
For most of the colonial period, Dutch control over the archipelago was tenuous outside of coastal strongholds; only in the early 20th century did Dutch dominance extend to what was to become Indonesia's current boundaries. Despite major internal political, social and sectarian divisions during the Indonesian National Revolution, Indonesians, on the whole, found unity in their fight for independence. Japanese occupation during World War II ended Dutch rule, and encouraged the previously suppressed Indonesian independence movement. A later UN report stated that four million people died in Indonesia as a result of famine and forced labor during the Japanese occupation. Two days after the surrender of Japan in August 1945, Sukarno, an influential nationalist leader, declared independence and was appointed president. The Netherlands tried to reestablish their rule, and the resulting conflict ended in December 1949, when in the face of international pressure, the Dutch formally recognized Indonesian independence (with the exception of the Dutch territory of West New Guinea, which was incorporated into Indonesia following the 1962 New York Agreement, and the UN-mandated Act of Free Choice of 1969).

Friday, October 19, 2012

Indonesia -History Pre-Colonial Period



A Borobudur ship carved on Borobudur, c. 800 CE. Indonesian outrigger boats may have made trade voyages to the east coast of Africa as early as the 1st century CE.
Fossils and the remains of tools show that the Indonesian archipelago was inhabited by Homo erectus, popularly known as the "Java Man", between 1.5 million years ago and as recently as 35,000 years ago. Homo sapiens reached the region by around 45,000 years ago. In 2011 evidence was uncovered in neighbouring East Timor, showing that 42,000 years ago these early settlers had high-level maritime skills, and by implication the technology needed to make ocean crossings to reach Australia and other islands, as they were catching and consuming large numbers of big deep sea fish such as tuna.
Austronesian peoples, who form the majority of the modern population, migrated to South East Asia from Taiwan. They arrived in Indonesia around 2000 BCE, and as they spread through the archipelago, confined the native Melanesian peoples to the far eastern regions. Ideal agricultural conditions, and the mastering of wet-field rice cultivation as early as the 8th century BCE, allowed villages, towns, and small kingdoms to flourish by the 1st century CE. Indonesia’s strategic sea-lane position fostered inter-island and international trade, including links with Indian kingdoms and China, which were established several centuries BCE.Trade has since fundamentally shaped Indonesian history.


The nutmeg plant is native to Indonesia's Banda Islands. Once one of the world's most valuable commodities, it drew the first European colonial powers to Indonesia.
From the 7th century, the powerful Srivijaya naval kingdom flourished as a result of trade and the influences of Hinduism and Buddhism that were imported with it. Between the 8th and 10th centuries, the agricultural Buddhist Sailendra and Hindu Mataram dynasties thrived and declined in inland Java, leaving grand religious monuments such as Sailendra's Borobudur and Mataram's Prambanan. The Hindu Majapahit kingdom was founded in eastern Java in the late 13th century, and under Gajah Mada, its influence stretched over much of Indonesia.

Although Muslim traders first traveled through South East Asia early in the Islamic era, the earliest evidence of Islamized populations in Indonesia dates to the 13th century in northern Sumatra. Other Indonesian areas gradually adopted Islam, and it was the dominant religion in Java and Sumatra by the end of the 16th century. For the most part, Islam overlaid and mixed with existing cultural and religious influences, which shaped the predominant form of Islam in Indonesia, particularly in Java.

Thursday, October 18, 2012

Indonesia - Introduction

Indonesia , officially the Republic of Indonesia  is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania. Indonesia is an archipelago comprising approximately 17,508 islands. It has 33 provinces with over 238 million people, and is the world's fourth most populous country. Indonesia is a republic, with an elected legislature and president. The nation's capital city is Jakarta. The country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, and Malaysia. Other neighboring countries include Singapore, Philippines, Australia, Palau, and the Indian territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Indonesia is a founding member of ASEAN and a member of the G-20 major economies. The Indonesian economy is the world's sixteenth largest by nominal GDP and fifteenth largest by purchasing power parity.

The Indonesian archipelago has been an important trade region since at least the 7th century, when Srivijaya and then later Majapahit traded with China and India. Local rulers gradually absorbed foreign cultural, religious and political models from the early centuries CE, and Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms flourished. Indonesian history has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources. Muslim traders brought Islam, and European powers brought Christianity and fought one another to monopolize trade in the Spice Islands of Maluku during the Age of Discovery. Following three and a half centuries of Dutch colonialism, Indonesia secured its independence after World War II. Indonesia's history has since been turbulent, with challenges posed by natural disasters, corruption, separatism, a democratization process, and periods of rapid economic change.

Across its many islands, Indonesia consists of hundreds of distinct native ethnic and linguistic groups. The largest—and politically dominant—ethnic group are the Javanese. A shared identity has developed, defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a majority Muslim population, and a history of colonialism and rebellion against it. Indonesia's national motto, "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika" ("Unity in Diversity" literally, "many, yet one"), articulates the diversity that shapes the country. Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support the world's second highest level of biodiversity. The country has abundant natural resources, yet poverty remains widespread.
It lies between the continents of Asia and Australiaand forms a land barrier between the pacific and Indian Oceans. The climate is hot with two monsoon periods, the dry ( June-Sept) and wet ((Oct-April).
Much of the countries is mountainous and volcanic, but abundant rainfall provides most of the islands with a highly fertile soil and about three quarters of the popu;lation work on land.

Wednesday, October 17, 2012

Rank of Equitoriall Guinea

The rank of Equitorial Guinea from the poorest is 57th and from the richest is 148th with national average per capita income using atlas method is 930. ( India -530). and in other methods such as IMF, WB and CIA as per 2007,2007, and 2008 is
Rank/gdp....rank/gdp......rank/gdp
51/10,.....29/19,533....38/17,490.

Malabo Equatorial Guinea Public culture center

Equitorial Guinea - Education

Education in Equatorial Guinea is free and compulsory until the age of 14. In 1993, the gross primary enrollment rate was 149.7 percent, and the net primary enrollment rate was 83.4 percent. Late entry into the school system and high dropout rates are common, and girls are more likely than boys to drop out of school, with enrolment at about 24 percent of all age-eligible students.
Primary education is for five years followed by four years of secondary in the first stage and three subsequent years of secondary education in the second stage. In 2001, about 35% of children between the ages of three and six were enrolled in some type of preschool program.
It is estimated that about 45 percent of all students complete their primary education. The student-to-teacher ratio for primary school was at about 43:1 in 2000; the ratio for secondary school was about 23:1.
The National University of Equatorial Guinea is the primary institute of higher learning. The adult literacy rate for 2004 was estimated at about 84.2 percent, with 92.1 percent for men and 76.4 percent for women.
As of 2003, public expenditure on education was estimated at 0.6% of GDP, or 1.6% of total government expenditures

Monday, October 15, 2012

Equitorial Guinea - Politics

Republic of equitorial Guinea, formerly Spanish Guinea, has as its major components the mainland province of Rio Muni and the Island of Bioko. The Fang is the largest group inhabited in Rio Muni with its capital in Bata.
Malabo , the national capital, is on the island of Bioko, formerly called Fernando Po. Spain claimed the island in 1778, but it was not until 1910 that its Bubi inhatants recognized Spanish suzerainty. For most of the twentieth century
 In the period following Spain's grant of local autonomy to Equatorial Guinea in 1963, there was a great deal of political party activity. Bubi and Fernandino parties on the island preferred separation from Río Muni or a loose federation. Ethnically based parties in Río Muni favored independence for a united country comprising Bioko and Río Muni, an approach that ultimately won out. (The Movement for the Self-Determination of Bioko Island (MAIB) which advocates independence for the island under Bubi control, is one of the offshoots of the era immediately preceding independence).
Equatorial Guinea became officially independent from Spain on October 12, 1968. Since then, the country has had two presidents: Francisco Macías Nguema, the former mayor of Mongomo under the Spanish colonial government, and Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo (Macías's nephew), who has ruled since 1979 when he staged a military coup d'état and executed Macías.
The 1982 constitution of Equatorial Guinea gives Obiang extensive powers, including naming and dismissing members of the cabinet, making laws by decree, dissolving the Chamber of Representatives, negotiating and ratifying treaties and calling legislative elections. Obiang retains his role as commander-in-chief of the armed forces and minister of defense, and he maintains close supervision of the military activity. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President and operates under powers designated by the President. The Prime Minister coordinates government activities in areas other than foreign affairs, national defense and security.
After the accession of Macías to power, political activity largely ceased in Equatorial Guinea. Opposition figures who lived among the exile communities in Spain and elsewhere agitated for reforms; some of them had been employed in the Macías and Obiang governments. After political activities in Equatorial Guinea were legalized in the early 1990s, some opposition leaders returned to test the waters, but repressive actions have continued sporadically.
With the prodding of the United Nations, the United States, Spain, and other donor countries, the government undertook an electoral census in 1995. Freely contested municipal elections, the country's first, were held in September. Most observers agree that the elections themselves were relatively free and transparent and that the opposition parties garnered between two-thirds and three-quarters of the total vote. The government delayed announcement of the results and then claimed a highly dubious 52% victory overall and the capture of 19 of 27 municipal councils. Malabo's council went to the opposition. In early January 1996 Obiang called presidential elections to be held in six weeks. The campaign was marred by allegations of fraud, and most of the other candidates withdrew in the final week. Obiang claimed re-election with 98% of the vote. International observers agreed the election was not free or fair. In an attempt to molify his critics, Obiang announced his new cabinet, giving minor portfolios to some people identified by the government as being opposition figures.
Since independence, the two Presidents (Macías and Obiang) have been the dominant political forces in Equatorial Guinea. Since 1979, President Obiang has been constrained only by a need to maintain a consensus among his advisers and political supporters, most of whom are drawn from the Nguema family in Mongomo, in the eastern part of Río Muni. The Nguema family is part of the Esangui subclan of the Fang. Alleged coup attempts in 1981 and 1983 raised little sympathy among the populace.
President Obiang's rule, during which schools were permitted to reopen and primary education expanded, and public utilities and roads restored, compares favorably with Macías' tyranny and terror. It has been criticized for not implementing genuine democratic reforms. Corruption and a dysfunctional judicial system disrupt the development of Equatorial Guinea's economy and society. In March 2001 the President appointed a new Prime Minister, Cándido Muatetema Rivas, and replaced several ministers perceived to be especially corrupt. However, the government budget still does not include all revenues and expenditures. The United Nations Development Programme has proposed a broad governance reform program, but the Equatorial Guinean Government has not moved rapidly to implement it.
Although Equatorial Guinea lacks a well-established democratic tradition comparable to the developed democracies of the West, it has progressed toward developing a participatory political system out of the anarchic, chaotic, and repressive conditions of the Macias years. In power since 1979, the Obiang government has made little progress in stimulating the economy. Extremely serious health and sanitary conditions persist, and the educational system remains in desperate condition. Although the abuses and atrocities that characterized the Macias years have been eliminated, effective rule of law does not exist. Religious freedom is tolerated.
On December 15, 2002, Equatorial Guinea's four main opposition parties withdrew from the country's presidential election. Obiang won an election widely considered fraudulent by members of the western press.
According to a March 2004 BBC profile  politics within the country are currently dominated by tensions between Obiang's son Teodoro (known by the nickname Teodorín, meaning Little Teodoro), and other close relatives with powerful positions in the security forces. The tension may be rooted in a power shift arising from the dramatic increase since 1997 in oil production.
A November 2004 report  named Mark Thatcher as a financial backer of a March 2004 attempt to topple Obiang organized by Simon Mann. Various accounts also name the UK's MI6, the US Central Intelligence Agency, and Spain as having been tacit supporters of the coup attempt. Nevertheless, an Amnesty International report  on the ensuing trial highlights the government's failure to demonstrate in court that the alleged coup attempt had ever actually taken place.
 Executive branchMain office holders Office Name Party Since
President Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo Democratic Party of Equatorial Guinea 3 August 1979
Prime Minister Vicente Ehate Tomi Democratic Party of Equatorial Guinea 21 May 2012
The 1982 constitution of Equatorial Guinea gives the President extensive powers, including naming and dismissing members of the cabinet, making laws by decree, dissolving the Chamber of Representatives, negotiating and ratifying treaties and calling legislative elections. The President retains his role as commander in chief of the armed forces and minister of defense, and he maintains close supervision of the military activity. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President and operates under powers designated by the President. The Prime Minister coordinates government activities in areas other than foreign affairs, national defense and security. Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo seized power in a military coup. He is elected by popular vote to a seven-year term.
Another official branch of the government is the State Council. The State Council's main function is to serve as caretaker in case of death or physical incapacity of the President. It comprises the following ex officio members: the President of the Republic, the Prime Minister, the Minister of Defense, the President of the National Assembly and the Chairman of the Social and Economic Council.
 Legislative branch This section does not cite any references or sources. (December 2008)
The Chamber of People's Representatives (Cámara de Representantes del Pueblo) has 100 members, elected for a five year term by proportional representation in multi-member constituencies. Equatorial Guinea is a One party dominant state. This means that only one political party, the Democratic Party of Equatorial Guinea, is in fact allowed to hold effective power. Although minor parties are allowed, they are de facto required to accept the leadership of the dominant party

Sunday, October 14, 2012

Equitorial Guinea - Economy

Economy


Subsistence farming is the predominant occupation in Equatorial Guinea, although only 5% of the land is arable. Prior to independence, the money economy was based on the production of cocoa (mostly on Bioko) and coffee and timber (in Río Muni). Following severe deterioration of the rural economy, the government has made efforts to increase production of these products to preindependence levels. Other agricultural products include rice, yams, cassava, bananas, and palm oil. Livestock are raised and there is a fishing industry. There is food processing, sawmilling, and the manufacture of basic consumer items. The discovery and exploitation of large offshore oil and natural gas deposits increased economic growth beginning in the late 1990s, but the oil and gas revenue, largely lost to government corruption, has not significantly improved the standard of living in the generally improverished nation. The country also has unexploited deposits of titanium, iron ore, manganese, uranium, and gold. Both Río Muni and Bioko have substantial road networks; there are no railroads. Malabo is the main port.
The value of Equatorial Guinea's exports is considerably higher than the cost of its imports. The United States is the country's largest trading partner, followed by China, Spain, Italy, and France. The main exports are petroleum, methanol, timber, and cocoa; the chief imports are petroleum equpment and other machinery, foodstuffs, and beverages. Equatorial Guinea continues to depend heavily on foreign investment
Equatorial Guinea is a small country off West Africa which has recently struck oil and which is now being cited as a textbook case of the resource curse - or the paradox of plenty.

Since the mid 1990s the former Spanish colony has become one of sub-Sahara's biggest oil producers and in 2004 was said to have the world's fastest-growing economy.
However, few people have benefited from the oil riches and the country ranks near the bottom of the UN human development index. The UN says that less than half the population has access to clean drinking water and that 20 percent of children die before reaching five.
The country has exasperated a variety of rights organisations who have described the two post-independence leaders as among the worst abusers of human rights in Africa.
Continue reading the main story
According to Human Rights Watch, the ''dictatorship under President Obiang has used an oil boom to entrench and enrich itself further at the expense of the country's people''.The corruption watchdog Transparency International has put Equatorial Guinea in the top 12 of its list of most corrupt states. Resisting calls for more transparency, President Obiang has for long held that oil revenues are a state secret. In 2008 the country became a candidate of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative - an international project meant to promote openness about government oil revenues - but failed to qualify by an April 2010 deadline.
A 2004 US Senate investigation into the Washington-based Riggs Bank found that President Obiang's family had received huge payments from US oil companies such as Exxon Mobil and Amerada Hess.
Observers say the US finds it hard to criticise a country which is seen as an ally in a volatile, oil-rich region. In 2006, Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice hailed President Obiang as a "good friend" despite repeated criticism of his human rights and civil liberties record by her own department. More recently President Barack Obama posed for an official photograph with President Obiang at a New York reception.
The advocacy group Global Witness has been lobbying the United States to act against the President Obiang's son Teodor, a government minister. It says there is credible evidence that he spent millions buying a Malibu mansion and private jet using corruptly acquired funds - grounds for denying him a visa.
Equatorial Guinea hit the headlines in 2004 when a plane load of suspected mercenaries was intercepted in Zimbabwe while allegedly on the way to overthrow President Obiang

Equitorial Guinea - Industry

Equatorial Guinea's manufacturing sector is very small. Sawmilling leads industrial production, followed by cement, bleach, and tuna canning plants. Small-scale soap manufacturing and food processing operations round out the industrial sector. The petroleum mining industry is growing rapidly, as large oil reserves have been discovered. Oil in 2002 accounted for over 60% of GDP and over 90% of exports. Proven oil reserves are estimated at 12 million barrels. Oil production increased from 17,000 barrels per day in 1996 to around 181,000 barrels per day in 2001. There is a methanol plant on Bioko island that processes natural gas. Proven natural gas reserves are estimated at1.3 trillion cubic feet (Tcf)
The ministers of the energy industry of Central Africa will face the task of establishing common strategies to promote integral and sustainable development on the continent.


This was announced last week in Dakar by Abderrahim Doumar, Executive Director of the African Regional Center of Technology (ARCT), an organization created in 1977 promoted by the African Union whose aim is to provide the member countries with the necessary technological mechanisms to direct them towards integrated and sustainable development.

According to the Director himself, the forum will have the presence of scientists from the energy sector who, along with the engineers and ministers, will analyze the state of technology in national strategies of development, and in the region as a whole.

The meeting in Malabo will focus on renewable energies, and they will also analyze the results of the studies carried out on these matters. The objective is to direct the national policies towards the diversification of the energy resources in order to find alternatives in view of their shortages.

The ARCT is made up of 31 member countries and its projects are focused on the priority sectors such as food, energy and capital assets



Saturday, October 13, 2012

Equitorial Guinea- Agriculture

Agriculture is the main economic activity in Equatorial Guinea, involving about 71 percent of the economically active population.

An estimated 8 percent of the land is engaged in crop production. The island of Bioko has year-round rainfall, and the prevailing economic activity is cocoa cultivation. In Río Muni (on mainland Africa), where 80 percent of the population lives, food crops are the dominant economic activity, and cash crop cultivation is secondary.
Agriculture (including forestry and fishing) accounts for about 50 percent of GDP and 60 percent of exports. The main food crop is cassava, of which 45,000 tons were produced in 2004. Sweet potatoes are the second-largest food crop, with 36,000 tons in 2004, followed by bananas (20,000 tons).
Before independence, the main cash crops were cocoa, coffee, and palm kernels for palm oil. Guinean cocoa, of excellent quality, had an annual production of 38,000 tons in 1967. However, production experienced a sharp drop in the 1970s, falling to 4,512 tons in 1980. In 2004, production was estimated at 2,400 tons. Coffee of comparatively poor quality is grown in northern Río Muni, along the Cameroon border. The preindependence production of 8,959 tons in 1967 fell to 500 tons in 1978; the decline was mainly caused by forcible transfer of coffee farmers to the Bioko cocoa plantations. Coffee production was an estimated 3,500 tons in 2004. Actual cocoa and coffee production is higher, but official figures do not take into account quantities smuggled abroad rather than delivered to state marketing agencies
Equatorial Guinea Promotes Agricultural Sector
Agriculture Ministry Discusses Cooperation with China
As part of Equatorial Guinea’s (República de Guinea Ecuatorial) efforts to boost agricultural development and move the country toward an emergent economy, the government is seeking further cooperation with China. In a meeting between Gregorio Boho Camo, president of the Chamber of Commerce of Bioko, Equatorial Guinea, and the manager of the Chinese Embassy in Malabo, the two discussed the possibility of creating a consortium for the agricultural sector.
During the meeting, Gregorio Boho Camo highlighted how the creation of the agriculture sector consortium with China will help Equatorial Guinea reach its Horizon 2020 objectives. The possibility of re-launching cacao cultivation with the help of Chinese companies will be another way of achieving these goals.
The Ministry of Agriculture, headed by Minister Teodoro Nguema Obiang Mangue, disseminated information about the government’s agriculture sector objectives throughout the country. During the awareness tour for the agriculture sector, Sergio Osa Mongomo, Vice Minister of Agriculture and Forestry, talked about the activities of the MAECI program, a project focused on attaining food self-sufficiency in the country, with the purpose of achieving the goals set during the second National Economic Conference in 2007.
The tour previewed the activities Minister Nguema will carry out in the first quarter of 2011 and highlighted the importance of the agricultural associations and the promotion of coffee and cacao in the country. They also verified the state of the compliance with the repayment of loans, given by the state to various agricultural associations, as well as the distribution of seeds, fertilizers and plant health products

Equitorial Guinea- Geography

The Republic of Equatorial Guinea is located in west central Africa. Bioko Island lies about 40 kilometers (24.9 mi) from Cameroon. Annobón Island lies about 595 kilometres (370 mi) southwest of Bioko Island. The larger continental region of Rio Muni lies between Cameroon and Gabon on the mainland; it includes the islands of Corisco, Elobey Grande, Elobey Chico, and adjacent islets.


Bioko Island, called Fernando Po until the 1970s, is the largest island in the Gulf of Guinea - 2,017 square kilometers (779 sq mi). It is shaped like a boot, with two large volcanic formations separated by a valley that bisects the island at its narrowest point. The 195-kilometer (121 mi) coastline is steep and rugged in the south but lower and more accessible in the north, with excellent harbors at Malabo and Luba, and several scenic beaches between those towns.

On the continent, Rio Muni covers 26,003 square kilometers (10,040 sq mi). The coastal plain gives way to a succession of valleys separated by low hills and spurs of the Crystal Mountains. The Rio Benito (Mbini) which divides Rio Muni in half, is unnavigable except for a 20-kilometer stretch at its estuary. Temperatures and humidity in Rio Muni are generally lower than on Bioko Island.

Annobon Island, named for its discovery on New Year's Day 1472, is a small volcanic island covering 18 square kilometers (6.9 sq mi). The coastline is abrupt except in the north; the principal volcanic cone contains a small lake. Most of the estimated 1,900 inhabitants are fisherman specializing in traditional, smallscale tuna fishing and whaling. The climate is tropical—heavy rainfall, high humidity, and frequent seasonal changes with violent windstorms.

Location: Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Biafra, between Cameroon and Gabon.
INDEPENDENCE DAY OF EQUATORIAL GUINEA

Occasion

October 11, 2012, 9:26pm

TODAY is the Independence Day of Equatorial Guinea commemorating its freedom in 1968. Located in Central Africa, Equatorial Guinea is bordered to the north by Cameroon, to the south and east by Gabon, and to the west by the Gulf of Guinea.
The country comprises two parts: A continental region, which is composed of small offshore islands like Corisco, Elobey Grande, and Elobey Chico; and an insular region which includes Annobon and Bioko islands. The largest and capital city is Malabo.
Equatorial Guinea is the third-smallest country in continental Africa. The country’s population is around 676,000 with Spanish, French, and Portuguese as the official languages. The dominant religion is Christianity, accounting for 93% of the population.
Three main industries contribute to Equatorial Guinea’s economy: Forestry, fishing, and farming. In 1996, the country discovered substantial oil reserves which contribute significantly to government revenues. This discovery made the country the third largest oil producer in Sub-Saharan Africa in 2004.
We congratulate the people and government of Equatorial Guinea led by Their Excellencies, President Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, Prime Minister Vicente Ehate Tomi, First Deputy Prime Minister Clemente Engonga Nguema Onguene, and Vice Presidents Ignacio Milam Tang and Teodoro Nguema Obiang Mangue, on the occasion of its Independence Day. CONGRATULATIONS AND MABUHAY

Equitorial Guinea - History


    HISTORY OF EQUATORIAL GUINEA
     Colonial rule
     Independence












Colonial rule: AD 1472-1968
A large island off the Guinea coast (the site today of Malabo, capital of Equatorial Guinea) becomes known in history as Fernando Po - because it is first reached, in about 1472, by the Portuguese navigator Fernão do Pó. The island and the neighbouring coast are mainly visited by Portuguese traders, giving Portugal certain rights in the area (rights recognized at any rate by Catholic Europe, since the pope has granted Africa to Portugal in the treaty of Tordesillas).

In 1778 Portugal assigns these rights to Spain. The intention is to give Spain a foothold in Africa from which to conduct her own slave trade. In return Spain recognizes Portugal's rights in the interior of Brazil, far to the west of the Tordesillas line.









The Spanish, daunted by yellow fever, make little use of this new opportunity in Africa. In the first half of the 19th century they lease harbours in Fernando Po to the British (for their campaign to suppress the slave trade). Finally, from the 1850s, they begin to establish a Spanish presence in their African colony. Minor explorations are made inland from the coast. From 1879 Fernando Po is used as a penal settlement for troublemakers deported from Cuba.

When the scramble for Africa begins, in the 1880s, Spanish activity in this part of Africa is feeble compared to that of immediate neighbours - Germany to the north in Cameroon, France to the south in Gabon. Spanish Guinea wins recognition as a colony, but it is a decidedly pinched area.







Spanish colonial interest centres at first on the healthy and fertile Fernando Po (with its cocoa and coffee plantations), but after decades of neglect the mainland also begins to receive some attention in the 1930s.

During the 1960s progress towards independence is smooth. In 1968 the Spanish government proposes a constitution for an independent republic. Within months, before the end of the year, this constitution is approved in a plebiscite. Parliamentary elections are held. Independence is proclaimed.






Independence: from AD 1968
The first president is Francisco Macías Nguema, who soon makes it clear that he intends his rule to be absolute, long-lasting and unforgettable. In 1972 he introduces a new constitution, naming himself president for life. In 1973 he grants himself absolute power, takes control of press and radio, prevents his people from travelling abroad, and - to emphasize the drift of his argument - gives Fernando Po a new name, Macías Nguema.

A reign of terror follows, bringing international protests, until in 1979 Macías is toppled in a military coup led by his nephew, the defence minister Teodoro Obiang Nguema.









President Obiang remains in power for the rest of the century and achieves a human rights record little better than that of his uncle.

During the 1990s, in the spirit of the times, the promise of democracy is constantly in the air. But opposition leaders are continually harassed and persecuted. Elections are widely agreed to be fraudulent. In 1996 the president claims to have been re-elected with more than 99% of the vote. Meanwhile Fernando Po has acquired another new name. When Macías Nguema falls from power, in 1979, his eponymous island goes the same way. It becomes Bioko.

Equitorial Guinea - Introduction

Equatorial Guinea, officially the Republic of Equatorial Guinea, is a country located in Middle Africa. It has two parts: a Continental Region (Río Muni), including several small offshore islands including Corisco, Elobey Grande and Elobey Chico; and an insular region containing Annobón island and Bioko island (formerly Fernando Pó) where the capital Malabo is situated.


Annobón is the southernmost island of Equatorial Guinea and is situated just south of the equator. Bioko island is the northernmost point of Equatorial Guinea. Between the two islands and to the east is the mainland region. Equatorial Guinea is bordered by Cameroon on the north, Gabon on the south and east, and the Gulf of Guinea on the west, where the island nation of São Tomé and Príncipe is located between Bioko and Annobón. Formerly the colony of Spanish Guinea, its post-independence name is suggestive of its location near both the equator and the Gulf of Guinea. Besides the Spanish cities of Ceuta and Melilla on the Mediterranean coast next to Morocco, it is the only territory in mainland Africa with Spanish as the official language.
With an area of 28,000 square kilometres (11,000 sq mi) Equatorial Guinea is one of the smallest countries in continental Africa. It is also the richest per capita; however, the wealth is distributed very unevenly. With a population of 650,702, Equatorial Guinea is the third-smallest country in continental Africa. It is also the second smallest United Nations (UN) member from continental Africa.
The discovery of sizeable petroleum reserves in recent years is altering the economic and political status of the country. Its gross domestic product (GDP) per capita ranks 64th in the world; however, most of the country's considerable oil wealth actually lies in the hands of only a few people.

Equatorial Guinea has one of the worst human rights records in the world, consistently ranking among the "worst of the worst" in Freedom House's annual survey of political and civil rights and Reporters Without Borders ranks President Obiang among its "predators" of press freedom. Out of 44 sub-Saharan countries, Equatorial Guinea ranks 9th highest in the Human Development Index (HDI) and 115th overall, which is among the medium HDI countries

Friday, October 12, 2012

Rank of Angola

The rank of Angola from the poorest is56th and from the rich is 149th with national average per capita using atlas method in 2003.
The forms of measurement IMF,WB,CIA as per 2007,2007 and 2008 gdp (nominal) per capita
rank/gdp........rank/gdp............rank/gdp
90/3,756......84/3,440...........78/5,003
Area
 -  Total 1,246,700 km2 (23rd)
481,354 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) negligible
Population
 -  2009 estimate 18,498,000[1][2] 
 -   census (scheduled for 2013) 
 -  Density 14.8/km2 (199th)
38.4/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2011 estimate
 -  Total $115.679 billion[3] (64th)
 -  Per capita $5,894[3] (107th)
GDP (nominal) 2011 estimate
 -  Total $100.948 billion[3] (61st)
 -  Per capita $5,144[3] (91st)
Gini (2000) 59[4] (high
HDI (2011) Increase0.486 (low) (148th)

Education and Culture of Angola





The traditional art of Angola is sculpturing and mask making. Also they craft baskets and ceramics.
Figure making is the oldest type of art in Angola. In the beginning the used wood and ivory. Today they use also metal as the base material for their figure making.
In the beginning the designs were inspired in religious believes and they had abstract shapes. After the arrival of European settlers, the artist were exposed to Christianity, which had a strong influence on them.
Music and dance have a primordial importance in the African culture of Angola.
In southwest Angola the typical dance is called Nkili.
Une of the categories of Angola's dance is characterized by the use of masks and the variety of movement using mainly one part of the body

Struggle for independence


Independence: from AD 1975
During 1975, before the official Portuguese withdrawal, the civil war in Angola intensifies. In fighting for control of the capital city, Luanda, the MPLA succeeds in driving out both its rivals. UNITA, which claims to enjoy wider popular support than the other groups, argues that Portugal must fulfil its last colonial duty and supervise elections.
But the Portuguese, eager to leave as quickly as possible, abandon the country without formally handing over control to any succeeding government. The MPLA, in possession of the capital and with guaranteed support from the USSR and Cuba, declares itself the government of independent Angola. Agostinho Neto, a distinguished poet who has led the MPLA since 1962, becomes president.
  UNITA and the FNLA set up a rival government in the mountainous region of Huambo, inland from Benguela. Here they enlist the support of South African forces in neighbouring Namibia to oust the Marxist MPLA.
The conflict in Angola thus becomes an extension of the Cold War. The United States sends funds to UNITA and the FNLA and encourages South African involvement. The USSR provides similar support to the MPLA, while president Castro, eager to spread communism in Africa, sends large contingents of Cuban troops to Angola. As early as November 1975 South African and Cuban troops clash in a battle at Ebo, with victory on this occasion going decisively to the Cubans.
  South Africa's involvement increases over the years because of the situation in neighbouring Namibia, where the insurgent group SWAPO receives support from Angola's MPLA. From South Africa's point of view, maintaining control in Namibia and fighting communism in Angola become one and the same cause. But in 1988 exhaustion leads to a pact with Cuba. Both sides will withdraw their troops from Angola. South Africa will also pull out of Namibia.
This leaves Angola's civil war as an internal affair. The FNLA has by the late 1980s declined in importance. The rivals now are the MPLA, led by José dos Santos since the death of Neto in 1979; and UNITA, still under the control of its founder, Jonas Savimbi.
  From 1989 there are several attempts by the two men to achieve a ceasefire. A solution is made easier when the MPLA decides to give up Marxism-Leninism and the one-party state. An agreement is reached in 1991 on a new constitution, the merging of the two rival armies and the holding of multiparty elections.
The elections duly take place in 1992 and the MPLA beats UNITA into second place. Savimbi refuses to accept this result. Civil war breaks out again, even more violently than before. During two years of fighting, it is calculated that some two million people are driven from their homes (20% of the population). More than 20 million land mines are planted by the warring factions.
  In November 1994, under UN mediation in Lusaka, a somewhat shaky peace is agreed. It involves the gradual demobilization of UNITA's forces and the participation of UNITA in government as a political party, with Savimbi as vice-president of the nation.
However progress is far from convincing. The demobilization soon falls behind schedule. Savimbi reconsiders his decision to serve as vice-president. And UNITA proves reluctant to relinquish control over regions which include Angola's valuable diamond mines. (Of the nation's two main sources of wealth, oil has been exclusively in MPLA hands while diamonds have funded UNITA).
  All trace of agreement ends in December 1998, with a return to full-scale civil war. During 1999 UNITA wins control of some 75% of the countryside, forcing terrified peasants into government-held cities where starvation and illness threaten the lives of hundreds of thousands. The UN World Food Programme desperately tries to truck in emergency supplies along roads mined and ambushed by UNITA forces. Meanwhile the rest of the world hardly notices, with Kosovo exhausting the available supply of compassion.
No country in the world has had such a continuously appalling start to independence as Angola, potentially so prosperous from its natural resources but suffering from lethal self-inflicted wounds.

Angola - Economy (contd-1)

Economy - overview

Angola's high growth rate in recent years was driven by high international prices for its oil. Angola became a member of OPEC in late 2006 and its current assigned a production quota of 1.65 million barrels a day (bbl/day). Oil production and its supporting activities contribute about 85% of GDP. Diamond exports contribute an additional 5%. Subsistence agriculture provides the main livelihood for most of the people, but half of the country''s food is still imported. Increased oil production supported growth averaging more than 17% per year from 2004 to 2008. A postwar reconstruction boom and resettlement of displaced persons has led to high rates of growth in construction and agriculture as well. Much of the country''s infrastructure is still damaged or undeveloped from the 27-year-long civil war. Land mines left from the war still mar the countryside, even though peace was established after the death of rebel leader Jonas SAVIMBI in February 2002. Since 2005, the government has used billions of dollars in credit lines from China, Brazil, Portugal, Germany, Spain, and the EU to rebuild Angola''s public infrastructure. The global recession that started in 2008 temporarily stalled economic growth. Lower prices for oil and diamonds during the global recession slowed GDP growth to 2.4% in 2009 and to 3.4% in 2010, and many construction projects stopped because Luanda accrued $9 billion in arrears to foreign construction companies when government revenue fell in 2008 and 2009. Angola abandoned its currency peg in 2009, and in November 2009 signed onto an IMF Stand-By Arrangement loan of $1.4 billion to rebuild international reserves. Consumer inflation declined from 325% in 2000 to 14% in 2011. Higher oil prices in 2011, helped Angola climb turn a budget deficit of 8.6% of GDP in 2009 into an surplus of 7.5% of GDP in 2010. Corruption, especially in the extractive sectors, also is a major challenge.

GDP (purchasing power parity)

$115.9 billion (2011 est.)
$111.7 billion (2010 est.)
$108 billion (2009 est.)
note: data are in 2011 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$99.3 billion (2011 est.)

GDP - real growth rate

3.7% (2011 est.)
3.4% (2010 est.)
2.4% (2009 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP)

$5,900 (2011 est.)
$5,900 (2010 est.)
$5,800 (2009 est.)
note: data are in 2011 US dollars

GDP - composition by sector

agriculture: 9.6%
industry: 65.8%
services: 24.6% (2008 est.)

Population below poverty line

40.5% (2006 est.)

Labor force

8.24 million (2011 est.)

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 85%
industry and services: 15% (2003 est.)

Unemployment rate

NA

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 0.6%
highest 10%: 44.7% (2000)

Investment (gross fixed)

13.4% of GDP (2011 est.)

Budget

revenues: $42.86 billion
expenditures: $35.41 billion (2011 est.)

Taxes and other revenues

43.2% of GDP (2011 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

7.5% of GDP (2011 est.)

Public debt

24.5% of GDP (2011 est.)
21.4% of GDP (2010 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

14.3% (2011 est.)
14.5% (2010 est.)

Central bank discount rate

25% (31 December 2010 est.)
30% (31 December 2009 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate

17% (31 December 2011 est.)
22.68% (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of narrow money

$8.567 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$18.17 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of money

$8.446 billion (31 December 2008)
$4.153 billion (31 December 2007)

Stock of quasi money

$10.41 billion (31 December 2008)
$7.216 billion (31 December 2007)

Stock of broad money

$27.74 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$28.14 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of domestic credit

$22.1 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$18.95 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Agriculture - products

bananas, sugarcane, coffee, sisal, corn, cotton, cassava (manioc), tobacco, vegetables, plantains; livestock; forest products; fish

Industries

petroleum; diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, feldspar, bauxite, uranium, and gold; cement; basic metal products; fish processing; food processing, brewing, tobacco products, sugar; textiles; ship repair

Industrial production growth rate

5% (2010 est.)

Electricity - production

3.944 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - production by source

fossil fuel: 36.4%
hydro: 63.6%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (2001)

Electricity - consumption

3.365 billion kWh (2008 est.)

Electricity - exports

0 kWh (2009 est.)

Electricity - imports

0 kWh (2009 est.)

Oil - production

1.988 million bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - consumption

74,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Oil - exports

1.851 million bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - imports

38,280 bbl/day (2009 est.)

Oil - proved reserves

9.5 billion bbl (1 January 2011 est.)

Natural gas - production

690 million cu m (2009 est.)

Natural gas - consumption

690 million cu m (2009 est.)

Natural gas - exports

0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural gas - imports

0 cu m (2009 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves

309.8 billion cu m (1 January 2011 est.)

Current Account Balance

$7.755 billion (2011 est.)
$7.126 billion (2010 est.)

Exports

$65.63 billion (2011 est.)
$50.59 billion (2010 est.)

Exports - commodities

crude oil, diamonds, refined petroleum products, coffee, sisal, fish and fish products, timber, cotton

Exports - partners

China 42.8%, US 23%, India 9.5%, France 4% (2009)

Imports

$24.76 billion (2011 est.)
$18.34 billion (2010 est.)

Imports - commodities

machinery and electrical equipment, vehicles and spare parts; medicines, food, textiles, military goods

Imports - partners

Portugal 17.4%, China 14%, US 9%, Brazil 6.6%, South Africa 6%, France 5.8%, India 5.3% (2009)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$28.3 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$19.66 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Debt - external

$19.74 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$18.11 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home

$101 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$88.4 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad

$6.346 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$5.096 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Exchange rates

kwanza (AOA) per US dollar -
93.21 (2011 est.)
91.91 (2010 est.)
79.33 (2009)
75.023 (2008)
76.6 (2007)

Fiscal year

calendar year

Angola - Economy

nomy of Angola
Currency Angolan kwanza (AOA)
Fiscal year Calendar year
Trade organisations AU, WTO
Statistics
GDP $99.01 billion (2010 est.)
GDP growth 7.9% (2011 est.)
GDP per capita $9,000 (2011 est.)
GDP by sector agriculture: 9.6%; industry: 65.8%; services: 24.6% (2008 est.)
Inflation (CPI) 13.3% (2010 est.)
Population
below poverty line
40.5% (2006 est.)
Labour force 7.977 million (2010 est.)
Labour force
by occupation
agriculture: 85%; industry and services: 15% (2003 est.)
Average gross salary 10,000 (2011)
Main industries petroleum; diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, feldspar, bauxite, uranium, and gold; cement; basic metal products; fish processing; food processing, brewing, tobacco products, sugar; textiles; ship repair
Ease of Doing Business Rank 172nd
External
Exports $51.65 billion (2010 est.)
Export goods crude oil, diamonds, refined petroleum products, coffee, sisal, fish and fish products, timber, cotton
Main export partners China 35.65%, United States 25.98%, France 8.83%, South Africa 4.13% (2009)
Imports $18.1 billion (2010 est.)
Import goods machinery and electrical equipment, vehicles and spare parts; medicines, food, textiles, military goods
Main import partners Portugal 18.71%, China 17.39%, United States 8.51%, Brazil 8.22%, South Korea 6.72%, France 4.51%, Italy 4.28%, South Africa 4.02% (2009)
Gross external debt $17.98 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Public finances
Public debt 20.3% of GDP (2010 est.)
Revenues $40.41 billion (2010 est.)
Expenses $37.38 billion (2010 est.)
Economic aid $383.5 million (1999)
Foreign reserves $16.89 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Main data source: CIA World Fact Book
All values, unless otherwise stated, are in US dollars

The Economy of Angola is one of the fastest-growing economies in the world, with the Economist asserting that for 2001 to 2010, Angolas' Annual average GDP growth was 11.1
The Economy of Angola is one of the fastest-growing economies in the world,with the Economist asserting that for 2001 to 2010, Angolas' Annual average GDP growth was 11.1 percent. It is still recovering from the Angolan Civil War that plagued Angola from independence in 1975 until 2002. Despite extensive oil and gas resources, diamonds, hydroelectric potential, and rich agricultural land, Angola remains poor, and a third of the population relies on subsistence agriculture. Since 2002, when the 27-year civil war ended, the country has worked to repair and improve ravaged infrastructure and weakened political and social institutions. High international oil prices and rising oil production have led to a very strong economic growth in recent years], but corruption and public-sector mismanagement remain, particularly in the oil sector, which accounts for over 50 percent of GDP, over 90 percent of export revenue, and over 80 percent of government revenue.

Thursday, October 11, 2012

Angola - Industry


Petroleum and diamond are the major Angola industry sectors. They contribute more than 90% to the country's GDP and export volume. Agriculture and fishing industries are also popular as they engage majority of the Angolan population.Angola Industry Sectors: History
Angola was the popular slave trade market for the Portuguese and Dutch during the colonial era. Portugal administration discovered oil reserves in Angola in 1955. Large-scale oil and coffee production helped the country in achieving sustainable economic growth. Angola also had industries for food processing, electrical products, construction material, chemical, vehicle assembly and metallurgy. After attaining independence in 1975, the country entered into 26 long years of civil war that left Angola's economy in a state of jeopardy.


  • Agriculture: Angola's climate is favorable for tropical and semi-tropical crops. This, coupled with the fertile land of the region allows the growth of several cash crops. Coffee, tobacco, sunflower, timber and banana are the major crops of the country. Although, the GDP share of the agriculture has decreased since 2003, it engages more than half of the population. 
  • Fishing: Angola has a developed fishing industry with considerable foreign investment. The fishing industry is completely liberalized and the government no longer regulates the pricing policy

Angola - Agriculture


Angola Agriculture

The climate, soil and topography ensure the considerable Angola agriculture potential for modern and large scale agricultural production of a wide range of crops.
The main agricultural products in the northern part of the country are the cassava, beans and sweet potatoes. The central part is known for the corn production and the south is known for sorghum and some corn production.
Bananas, rice, sugar cane, palm oil, cotton, coffee, sisal (hemp), tobacco and sunflowers also place a role in the Angola agriculture sector. Up to 1973, coffee was Angola’s major export commodity.
Cattle rising and its milk products give life to the agriculture sector. Fishing along the rich coastal area of Angola also plays an important role in this sector.Angola is blessed with large regions favourable to farming in Luanda, Bengo, Benguela, Huila, Cabinda and Kuanza South Areas.
With the idea of launching an agri-business policy, as part of the government’s social and economic program for 2000, it was decided that the main effort should focus on the zones defined in the agriculture program and on the production of cereals, roots, tubercles, beans, fruits, vegetables, oil seeds and specialty products such as cattle breeding, meat processing, pig farming, rearing of poultry and other birds.



The main irrigated areas of angola are Bom Jesus and Caxito in the Bengo province; Vale do Yabi (Yabi Valley) in the Cabinda province; Mucuso and Lucala in the Kwanza Noth Province; Vale do Bengo in Luanda; Cavaco and Catumbela zones in the Benguela Province; Humpata, Matala and Chibia in Huila Province; Carunjamba, Giraul, Bero and Curoca in the Namibe Provinces and several zones in Cunene Province.