Friday, January 31, 2014

Australia - Introduction

Australia  officially theCommonwealth of Australia, is a country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area. Neighbouring countries include IndonesiaEast Timor and Papua New Guinea to the north; the Solomon IslandsVanuatu and New Caledonia to the north-east; and New Zealand to the south-east.
For at least 40,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians, who spoke languages grouped into roughly 250 language groups. After the discovery of the continent by Dutchexplorers in 1606, Australia's eastern half was claimed byGreat Britain in 1770 and initially settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788. The population grew steadily in subsequent decades; the continent was explored and an additional fiveself-governing Crown Colonies were established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated, forming the Commonwealth of Australia. Since Federation, Australia has maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy. The federation comprises six states and several territories. The population of 23.1 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated in the eastern states.
Australia is a developed country and one of the wealthiest in the world, with the world's 12th-largest economy. In 2012 Australia had the world's fifth-highest per capita income,Australia's military expenditure is the world's 13th-largest. With the second-highest human development index globally, Australia ranks highly in many international comparisons of national performance, such as quality of life, health, education, economic freedom, and the protection of civil liberties and political rights.[21] Australia is a member of the United NationsG20Commonwealth of NationsANZUSOrganisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), World Trade Organization,Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, and the Pacific Islands Forum.

Music of Italy

Rank and Econhomy

The rank of Italy from the poorest is 160 and its rank from the richest is 28 with gdp per capita using atlas method in 2003 is  21,560 $. In other measurementi.e., IMF,WB,and CIA using nominal method in 2007,2007, and 2008 are
Porta Nuova Skyline.jpg
PortaNuova, business district in Milan
Rank9th (nominal) / 10th (PPP)
CurrencyEuro (EUR), except in Campione d'Italia (CHF)
Fiscal yearcalendar year
Trade organisationsEUWTO (via EU membership), OECD
GDP$2.014 trillion (2012)[1] (nominal; 9th)
$1,833 trillion (2012)[1] (PPP; 10th)
GDP growthIncrease+0.7% (2014) +1,4% (2015)
GDP per capitaIncrease$33,115 nominal (2012)$30136 PPP (2012)
GDP by sectoragriculture: 1.8%; industry: 24.9%; services: 73.3% (2010 est.)[2]
Inflation (CPI)Increase3.0% (CPI, 2012 est.)
below poverty line
8% 4814000 people below absolute line of poverty (about 520€/month)(2012)
Gini coefficient36 (2009)[3]
Labour forceIncrease25.28 million (2012 est.)
Labour force
by occupation
services (67.8%), industry (28.3%), agriculture (3.9%) (2011)
Unemployment12.2% (May 2013)
Average gross salaryIncrease2,378 € / 3,270 $, (May 2013)[4]
Average net salaryIncrease1,898 € / 2,610 $, (May 2013)[4]Average net income monthly 1437€/1968$ (2013)
Main industriestourism, communications, machinery, steel, chemicalspharmaceuticalsfood processing, textiles, motor vehicles,home appliances, clothing, fashion
Ease of doing business rank
Italy has a diversified industrial economy with high gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and developed infrastructure. According to theInternational Monetary Fund, the World Bank and The World Factbook, in 2012 Italy was the ninth-largesteconomy in the world, the fourth-largest in Europe and the third-largest in the Eurozone in terms of nominal GDP, and the tenth-largest economy in the world and fifth-largest in Europe in terms ofpurchasing power parity (PPP) GDP.
Italy is a member of the G7 and the Group of Eight(G8) industrialized nations, the European Union and the OECD..


Agriculture, forestry, and fishing

Like other branches of the Italian economy, agriculture has been characterized historically by a series of inequalities, both regional and social. Until the Land Reform Acts of 1950, much of Italy’s cultivable land was owned and idly managed by a few leisured noblemen, while the majority of agricultural workers struggled under harsh conditions as wage labourers or owned derisory plots of land, too small for self-sufficiency. Agricultural workers had few rights, and unemployment ran high, especially in Calabria, where the impetus for land reform was generated. Reform entailed the redistribution of large tracts of land among the landless peasantry, thereby absorbing greater amounts of labour and encouraging more efficient land use.
Although partially successful, the reform created many farms that were still too small to be viable and plots that were scattered in parcels and often located in unfertile uplands. Another negative aspect of the reform was that it had the effect of damaging the social structure of rural communities. Initially, the EEC did little to help Italy’s small farmers, located primarily in the south, while wealthier, larger farms in the north benefited from EEC subsidies. However, in 1975 specific aid was directed at upland farmers, and in 1978 another package provided them advisory support and aid for irrigation. Today most farms are owned and operated by families.
Since World War II, Italy has maintained a negative trade balance in agricultural products, many of which are consumed domestically because of the country’s high population density. The majority of foreign agricultural and food-related trade is with other EU countries, in particular with France and Germany.
Italy’s plains constitute only one-fourth of the land under cultivation, indicating widespread cultivation of hilly environments where agriculture has been possible only as a result of modifying the natural landscape and resources through terracing, irrigation, and soil management. The most fertile area is the Po valley, where precipitation is fairly evenly distributed throughout the year, but mean rainfall decreases southward. Coastal areas in Puglia, Sicily, and Sardinia may register only about 12–16 inches (300–400 mm) of annual precipitation, compared with about 118 inches (3,000 mm) in Alpine regions.
In general, agricultural land use is divided into four types—field crops, tree crops, pasture, and forestry.