Saturday, January 30, 2010

Pakistan, Govt. of India Act, 1909

Lord Curzon (1859-1925)
John Morley (1838-1923)Lord Curzon, John Morley and The Earl of Minto were the three persons who laid the foundation stone of partitioning British India.After the Great Revolution and the agitation against the partition of of Bengal were the key ingredients which induced the British for taking a drastic step in the line of divide and rule by introducing the step towards constitutionalism.
Indian Councils Act of 1909, commonly known as orley-Minto Reforms, began when John Morley, the Liberal Secretary of State of India, and the conservative Governor general of india, The Earl of Minto, believed that the cracking down on terrorism in Bengal was necessary but not sufficient cndition for restoring stability to the British Raj after Lord Curzon's plan for partitioning of Bengal. They believed that a dramatic step was required to put heart into loyal elements of the popultion. They produced the Indian councils Act of 1909 (Morley-Minto reform), these reforms did not go any significant distance towards meeting the Indian National Congress demand for the system of Government obtaining in self governing British Colonies.

The Earl of Minto (1845-1914)

Pakistan, Establishment of AIML

Nawab Viqar-ul-Mulk Group Photo taken at the annual meeting of Muhammadan Educational Conference at Dhaka, 1906. Establishment of All India muslim League (1906)
On Dec 1930, 1906, the annual meeting of Mohammadan Educational Conference was held at Dhaka under the chairmanship of Nawab Viqar-ul-Mulk. Almost 3,000 delegates attended the session making it a largest ever representative gathering of Muslim India. For the first time the conference lifted its ban on political discusion, when Nawab SalimUllah khan presented a proposal for establish a political party to safeguard the interest of the Muslims, namely, All India Muslim League.
These factors had keptMuslims away from the Congress , Sir Syed 's advice to the Muslims, to give it a wide berth. Hindu agitation against the partition of Bengaland the Hindu revivalism's hostility towards the muslims. The Muslims remained loyal to Sir Syed's advice but events were quickly changing the Indian sceneand politics were being thrust on all sections of the population.
But the main motivating factor was that the Muslims Intellectual class wanted representation ; the masses needed a platform on which to unite. It was the dissemination of western thought by John Lock, Milton,and thomas the M.A.O. College that initiated the emergence of Muslim Nationalism.

Friday, January 29, 2010

Pakistan, Simla Deputation,1906

Lord Minto
Young Aga Khan III When Lord Minto was appointed as the Viceroy on India in 1905, The anti-partition agitation had convinced the Muslims of the futility of expecting any fair-play from the Hindu Majority. Therefore, tto safeguard their interests, the Muslim leaders drew up a plan for separate electorates for their community, and presented it to the viceroy Lord Mintoat Simla , on oct. 1906.
Mr. Bilgramiwrote the text of the plan. The Simla Deputation consisted of 70 representatives representing all opinions of the Muslim Community, and headed by Sir Aga Khan who read the address.The long address said, among other things, that the position of the Muslim community should not be estimated by its numerical strength alone, but in terms of its political importance and services rendered to the Empire . He also pointed out that the represenative institutions of the west inapropriate for Indiaand that their application was raising difficult problems . He stressed the need of utmost care while introducing or extending the electoral system in whatever spere, be it municipal or provincial.He stated that the Muslims should be represented as a community.
The viceroy in his reply, to the Simla deputation address reassured tthe Muslims that their political rights and Interest as a community would be safeguarded by any administrative representation under him.
Syed ali Bilgrami wrote the Simla address

Pakistan (Contd-2), Bengal partition

After the Great Revolution the British Imperialism first tried to rule over their colony by "divide and rule" policy and made a drastic step towards the division of Bengal with a view to creat a administrative division of Bengal and a province with a majority of Muslim Population i.e. the Eastern Bengal.They put an argument that the Bengal Presidency is too large for one Governor to administer.The provinces of Bengal and Assam were reconstituted so as to form two provinces of manageable size.Western Bengal , with a population of 54 million (42 million Hindus and 9 million Muslims), and Eastern bengal and Assam with a population of 31 million (12 million Hindus and 18 million Muslims). The territory to be transferred frm bengal to the new province consisted of the districts of Chittagong and Dhaka Divisions, Rajshahi Divisions excluding Darjeeling, and the district of Malda.
Curzon ,the then viceroy, sent the proposal to London on feb. 1905. The secretary of state for India, St. John Brodrich sanctioned it in June , and the proclamation of the formation of the new province was issued in Sept. The province of Bengal and Assam came into being on Oct. 16, 1905.
Incidentally, the partition went in favor of the Muslims. Before the Partition, western Bengal , being the first area to come under western influence , was developed and Industrialised. It was a striking contrast to the eastern part where the Muslim peasantry was crushed under the Hindu landlords, the river system was infested with pirates, and very few funds were allocated for education. It was dreaded as a place of banishment. The partition helped boost Bengali literature and language; efforts were also made towards the social, economic and educational uplift of the Muslims.

Wednesday, January 27, 2010

Pakistan (contd-1)

The Aga Khan's appointment to the Viceroy's Legislative Council at the age of 25 years, as he then was, proved an effective training ground for his future public and political life. Besides other important men, he came in close contact with lord Curzon, Lord Kitchner, and the great Indian leader Mr. Gokhale. He also kept himself in touch with Nawab Mohsinul Mulk, whom he had met during his visit to Aligarh in 1896. In 1904, Aga Khan was again offered membership of the council for two more years but he did not accept it.He wanted to participate actively in Politics. In 1902-1903, he prsided at the session of the All India muslim Education conference held in Delhi, on the occasion of the coronation of King Edwad VII, and made a strong appeal to the Muslims to raise the Aligarh College to the status of a university.
His active participation in the public life for about ten years gave the young Aga Khan an insight into the condition of Muslim in India.
Having been disappointed at the attitude of the Hindu dominated Congress, Prince Aga Khan , and his old friend Nawab Mohsin -ul-Mulk along with other Muslims.
On 1 oct., 1906, the news of the demand of Muslims for separate electorates spread like wild fire throughout the length and bredth of India. The Congress raised a storm of protests. there was some so-called nationalist Muslims whoridiculed this step of their brethren. To raise this voice a separate political organisation was felt by Prince Aga khan and other muslim leaders. he, therefore, on 24th oct 1906 wrote a letter to Nawab Mohsin-ul-mulk which is a very important document in the history of Muslims of the sub-continent because with this document stats the Muslim Leagueunder whose flag the Muslims won their freedom and got Pakistan.The letter is given below;

Tuesday, January 26, 2010

Pakistan, Towards formation of Muslim league after the Great Revolution,1857

In an article written by Jyoti Basu on the Great revolution of 1857, it was mentioned that shortly after the outbreak of the revolution Karl Marx in the New York Tribune, 28 July, 1857, described it, correctly, as "not a military mutiny, but a national Revolt". The most important aspects of the revolution was the solidarity amongst the rebels cutting across religious and provincial lines. The revolt spread rapidly in eastern and northern India.
After the collapse of the Great revolution of 1857, the Muslims in the Indo-Pakistan subcontinent were hounded out of all opportunities and employments.Full advantage of the hostile attitude of the british was taken by other communitieswho thus surpassed the the Muslims in every fied. It was the genius of Syed Ahmed Khan which tried to bring about a change in their prejudices against the British.In 1857 Syed Ahmed Khan laid the foundation of the Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental College at Aligarh.
It was in the great hall of Aligarh College, that in the year 1896, this grand old man of Muslim India met a very young man in whom he soon began to pin his hopes.His Highness Sir Sultan Muhammed Shah Prince Aga Khanhad visited the college where Syed Ahmed Khan, aged 82, welcomed him and presented an address in Persian to which the former also replied in Persian. Two years later Syed Ahmed Khan passed away.
In 1897, the Aga Khan three addresses of congratulations to the thenViceroy Lord Elgin at Simla ; one on behalf of his community, the as leader of The Muslims of Western India and a hird on ehlf of a representative assembly of the citizens of Bombay and Poona.
In 1902, Prince Aga Khan was appointed for two years a member of the viceroy's Council, which in those days was a very influential body. He took his residence in Calcutta then capital of India.

Pakistan, List of Muslim Majority countries

In a geopolitical sense these countries are often considered to form the Muslim World. The list only contains countries where at least 50 % of the population is Muslim.The percentage shows the proportional amount of Muslims out of the total population of each country.
1. The statics of 100% only applies to citizens of Saudi Arabia, and does not include the total population.8 million foreign workers in the countr are non-nationals which include Muslims of other sects, Jewsm Hindus, Budhists, and others.
2. Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Serbia . The assembly of Kosovo declared independence on 17 Jan, 2008.and is recognised by 65 countries out of 192 UN members.

Sunday, January 24, 2010

Pakistan, Islamic Republic

Muslim World including the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, Iran, Afghanistan, and Mauritania. Pakistan adopted the title under the constitution of 1956, iran adopted it after the 1979 Islamic Revolution that over throw the Pahlavi Dynasty. Afghanistan adopted it after the 2001 overthrew of the Taliban. Despite the similar name the countries differ differ greatly in their Govts and laws.
The term "Islamic republic" has come to mean several different things , some contradictory to others. To those Muslim Religious leaders in the middle east and Farca who advocate it, an Islamic republic is astate under particular theocratic form of govt. They see it as a compromise between a purely Islamic Caliphate , and secular nationalism and republicanism . In their conception of the Islamic Republic Republic, the penal code of the state is required to be compatible with some laws of of Sharia , and the state may not be a monarchy as many middle eastern states are presently.
Pakistan was the first country to adopt the adjective "Islamic" to modify its republican status under the otherwise secular constitution of 1956. Despite this definition the country did not have a state religion until 1973, when a new constitution , more democratic but less secular , was adopted. Pakistan only uses the Islamic name on its passport. The constitution of Pakistan , part IX, article 227 says :all existing laws shall be brought in confirmitywith the injunctions of Islamas laid down in the Quran Sunnah, in this part referred to as the injunctions of Islam, and no law shall be enacted which is repugnantto such injunctions.

Pakistan, Synopsis of History

The modern day Pakistan began with Independence from British Indiaon Aug 14, 1947. The political history of eventual birth of the country began in the aftermath of the Indian rebellion of 1857, which culminated in 90 years of direct rule by British Crown and subsequently, spawned a successful creation of the first Islamic State under the leadership of Muslim league. The later was founded in 1906 to protect the interests of Muslims in India. On Dec 1930s onwards it got popularised by 1. Muhammad Iqbal, 2. Mohammad Ali Jinnah, and 3. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan.

Friday, January 22, 2010

Pakistan, Alexander the Great (contd-1)


Under the Persians the Jews did very well. They were able to worship their own God, and even to trvel around the Persian Empire converting people to Judaism. But in 331BC Alexander the Great who was from macedon , conquered Persian Empire and "liberated" ( as he called it) the Jews from the Persian rule. At first the jews thought that they would be independent again and have a king, but it soon turned out that Alexander was making Israel part of his own empire. After Alexander died in 323 BC, Israel became part of the empire of Alexander's general Seleucus,

Pakistan, Alexander The Great

The oldest village Mehrgarh 6000 BC, is located 125 miles west of the Indus Valley. The initial site is quite small and exhibits evidence of crop farming, with produce such as Asiatic Wheat . The site also shows use of domestic goods and extensive trade with the west. Teded goods included Turqoise, copper, and cottonfrom as far away as Arabia. By 5,000 BC the dwellings of the Mehrgarh went from simple semi-permanent husing to mud brick, and then large permanent housing. The economy was largely depended on tradem continued well into 4,000 BC when the culture clearly identified as Harappan became evident.

From the early but rapidly advancing beginning of the Mehrgarh , came the eventual arrival of ythe early Harappan evidenced very densely packed villages and village centers, all with extensive irrigation systems, and much the same subsistence pattern as Mahrgarh.

The oldest evidence of human activity is of early Stone-age on the Pot war Plateau (north west Punjab). The so-called Dravidians were late Stone-Age hunter-gatherer communities in the Punjab Sind plains. Excavations indicate Primitive agriculture in the upland valleys of Baluchistan by the 4th millennium BC; tribes there may have been the first to domesticate the buffalo. In the 3rd millennium BC, permanent villages farming on the rich Indus alluviumwere the nucleiof what what was to become one of the world's most important urban cultures. The ndus valley civilisation

Tuesday, January 19, 2010

Pakistan, Achaemedin (contd-2)

Ancient bracelet, Achaemenid Period, 500 BC, Iran
Achaemenid gold vessels from the Oxus treasure.

Achamenid gold en bowl with lion imagery.
In the 5th century BCE the king of Persia ruled over territories roughly encompassing today's Iran, Iraq, Armenia, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Tjikistan, Uzbekistan, Turkey, Bulgaria, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon, causia, Many Parts of Greece, Parts of central Asia, Libya, and northern parts of Arabia, .Eventually by 480 BCEthe Achaemenids went on to hold the greatest percentage of world population for an empire, and became the largest empire in ancient history.
The Ionian Revolt in 499 BC, and associated revolts in Aeolis, Doris, Cyprus and Caria, were military rebillions by several regions of Asia Minor against Persian rule, lasting from 499 to 493 BC.

Persian Empire at the time of Persian war.

Pakistan, Achaemedin Empire (contd-1)

Achaemedin Empire or Persian Empire (550-330 BCE)was he successor state of the Median Empire, ruling over the significant portions of what would become a Greater Iran. The Persian and the Median Empire taken together are also known as the Medo-Asia Minor.Thrace, much of the Black Sea coastal region, Iraq, Northern Saudi Arabia, Jordan, chaemenid empire was invaded by Alexander III of Macedon, after which it collapsed and disintegrated in 330 BCE into what later became the Ptolemic dynesty and Seleucid Empires.
The Persian domination by the Achaemenid Empire over the Iranian People started by an extension of of the Achaemenid dynasty who expanded their earlier ruling clan over the Persians possibly back to 9th century BCE.The empire took its unified virgin form with a central administration around Pasargadae erected by Cyrus the Great.