Saturday, August 31, 2013

Industry in Iran

According to a report by the Economist, Iran has been ranked 39th for producing $23 billion of industrial products in 2008. From 2008 to 2009 Iran has leaped to 28th place from 69th place in annual industrial production growth rate.
The government of Iran has plans for the establishment of 50-60 industrial parks by the end of the fifth Five-Year Socioeconomic Development Plan by 2015. Iranian contractors have been awarded several foreign tender contracts in different fields of construction of dams, bridges, roads, buildings, railroads, power generation, and gas, oil and petrochemical industries. As of 2011, some 66 Iranian industrial companies are carrying out projects in 27 countries. Iran has exported over $20 billion worth of technical and engineering services over 2001-2011. The availability of local raw materials, rich mineral reserves, experienced man power have all collectively played crucial role in winning the international bids.
Ministry of Industries and Mines is in charge of facilitating the expansion and promotion of industrial and mineral policies. The Ministry is also in charge of centralization and integration of policy making in the industrial and mining sector. Finally, this Ministry regulates all strategies, policies and plans relevant to the industrial and mining sector in Iran.[7]

Small and Medium Enterprises[edit source | editbeta]

A 2003-report made by United Nations Industrial Development Organization regarding the state of SME's in Iran identified these causes as the ones impeding Iran's industrial development: lack of monitoring institutions, inefficient banking system, lack of sufficient R&D, shortage of managerial skills, corruption, inefficient taxation, socio-cultural apprehensions, absence of social learning loops, lack of familiarity with international markets necessary for global competition, cumbersome bureaucratic procedures, shortage of skilled labor, lack of intellectual property protection, shortage of research centers, lack of social capital, social learning, social responsibility and socio-cultural values.[8]
Despite these problems, recent studies reveal that over the past few years Iran has progressed rapidly in various scientific and technological fields. Major advancements have taken place in the petrochemical, pharmaceutical, aerospace, defense, and heavy industry sectors. Even in the face of U.S. economic sanctions, Iran appears to be emerging as an industrialized country.[9]

Production Statistics[edit source | editbeta]

Tehran is the economic centre of Iran.[10] About 30% of Iran’s public-sector workforce and 45% of large industrial firms are located in Tehran and almost half of these workers work for the government.[11]
Production of selected industrial goods
Source: Ministry of Commerce (Iran)[7][12]
2003 2001 1999 Unit Product
26390 18180 12699 Ton Preserved fish (tuna & sardine)
1264915 801395 671346 Ton Pasteurized milk
1179139 852353 950555 Ton Vegetable oil
1495 1113 923 Ton Sugar
4976 4818 4418 Thousand tons Non-alcoholic carbonated drink (except buttermilk)
112 60 000 Million bottles Barley decoction
13873 13359 20143 Million each Cigarette
293188 388790 227599 Ton Thread
396 551 385 Million meters Finished fabric
41195 51875 33933 Thousand square meters Machine woven carpet
81286 43014 41676 Thousand square meters Unwoven textile floor covering
11918 8166 5696 Thousand each Blanket
390210 315502 359037 Ton Paper
360017 306249 321232 Ton Detergent
60607 75918 74984 Ton Soap
1654 2351 2665 Million boxes Matches
28241 24755 22219 Thousand ton Cement
103867 76827 64105 Thousand square meters Tiles and ceramic
490 346 342 Each Combine
15377 12208 5173 Each Tractor
1505 612 532 Each Road construction machinery
447063 212664 182504 Each Washing machine
13624 24559 21198 Thousand each Electric sockets and switches
399692 129256 114399 Each Radio sets and record players
858190 807964 860403 Each Color TV sets
832420 933741 599701 Each Water counter
1189912 906671 842063 Each Electricity counters
663164 332643 194366 Each Motor cars
1075 328 353 Each Ambulances
12779 4303 3938 Each Trucks and lorries
4460 1643 3783 Each Buses
537 3226 940 Each Mini buses
69036 46639 38508 Each Vans and Mini vans

Food industry[edit source | editbeta]

Iran exported $736 million worth of foodstuffs in 2007 and $1 billion (~600,000 tonnes) in 2010.[13] Soft drinks, mineral water, biscuit, chocolate, confection, edible oil, dairies, conserved foods and fruits, jam and jelly, macaroni, fruit juice and yeast were among the main exports to Iraq, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and other Central Asian countries, Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Oman, Syria, Germany, Spain, the Netherlands, France, Canada, Venezuela, Japan, South Korea and Turkey.[13][14]

Retail industry[edit source | editbeta]

At present the Iranian retail industry is largely in the hands of cooperatives, many of them government-sponsored, and of independent retailers in the bazaars. The bulk of food sales occur at street markets, where the Chief Statistics Bureau sets the prices.[15]
Behpakhsh Co., Golrang Pakhsh and Ghasem Iran are the largest distribution companies in Iran.[citation needed] Ghasem provides more than 80,000 retailers with their requirements of consumer goods within the territories of Iran, Afghanistan, and Iraq.
Iran has 438,478 small grocery retailers.[16] These are especially popular in cities other than Tehran where the number of hypermarkets and supermarkets is still very limited. More mini-markets and supermarkets are emerging, but these are mostly one-off, independently owned operations. The most significant chains are the state-owned Etka, Refah, Shahrvand and Carrefour-owned Hyperstar Market, all of which are gearing up for expansion.[17][18] Migros Turk has also announced that it intends to invest in Iran's lucrative retail market. In 2010, a state-linked technology group (the Rouyesh Technical Centre) established the country's first online supermarket.[19]
Imports still account for a considerable proportion of consumer goods consumption in Iran, and Dubai, United Arab Emirates-based companies meet much of the demand; they re-export from Western and Asian countries, making Iran the UAE’s most important re-export market.[17]
Before the revolution in 1979, Iran was a major importer of Western apparel and foreign-manufactured consumer goods. Even now Iran is no stranger to Western retail influences, with numerous brands and goods available in shopping centers and outlets on Kish Island.

Brands[edit source | editbeta]

According to study results Bank Saderat Iran, Hamrah Aval, Iran Khodro, Zar Macaron, Pars Khodro, Steel Alborz, Yek-o-Yek, Golbaft, Takdaneh, Darou Pakhsh, [8] Behrouz, Delpazir, Sepehr Electric, Arjan, Khoshkhab, Novin Zafaran, Havilux, Boof chain restaurants, Telavang and Golrang are the best brands in the country.[20] Hamshahri and Donya-e-Eqtesad newspapers and Movafaqiyat magazine were selected as the best press.[20]

Automotive industry[edit source | editbeta]

Iran’s automotive industry is the second most active industry of the country, after its oil and gas industry.[21] Iran's automobile production crossed the 1 million mark in 2005. Iran Khodro is the largest car manufacturer in the Middle-East. It has established joint-ventures with foreign partners on 4 continents. Iran is the 12th largest automaker in the world.

Defense industry[edit source | editbeta]

The Iranian defense industry has taken great strides in the past 25 years, and now manufactures many types of arms and equipment, including its own tanks, armored personnel carriers, guided missiles, radar systems, guided missile destroyer, military vessels, submarines, and a fighter plane.[22] According to Iranian officials, the country sold $100 million worth of military equipment in 2003, including NATO members,[23] and as of 2006 had exported weapons to 57 countries.[24][25]

Construction industry[edit source | editbeta]

Construction is one of the most important sectors in Iran accounting for 20–50% of the total private investment. The Central Bank of Iran indicate that 70 percent of the Iranians own homes. The housing industry is one of the few segments of the Iranian economy where state capital shares as little as two per cent of the market, and the remaining 98 per cent is private sector investment. There is little red tape or hurdles and, as a result, through launching mass development projects, the use of new technologies and fast-pace project execution, a larger portion of the housing market is accessible. This is also true for new construction materials and technological advances.

Mining and metals[edit source | editbeta]

Iran is one of the most important mineral producers in the world, ranked among 15 major mineral-rich countries.[26] The country holds 68 types of minerals, including chrome, lead, zinc, copper, coal, gold, tin and iron.[27]

Textiles and apparel industry[edit source | editbeta]

Textile mills, based on domestic cotton and wool such as Tehran Patou and Iran Termeh, among others, employed about 400,000 people in 2000 and are centered in Tehran, Isfahan and along the Caspian coast. Iran, with a population of 70 million, requires 1.4 billion square meters of textiles annually.[28][29] Overseas companies smuggle illegal textiles and apparel into Iran at a rate that is decimating Iran textile manufacturers and costing Iranian jobs. The annual textile production has been restricted to 800 million square meters.[30]
Growth of the textile industry components, 1995–2000
Industry components Workforce, 1995 Workforce, 2000 Share in total manufacturing employment, 1995 (percent) Share in total manufacturing employment, 2000 (percent)
Spinning, weaving and finishing of textiles 112,714 107,565 14.2 12.0
Other textiles (line, jute, etc.) 30,879 31,794 3.9 3.5
Knitted and crocheted fabrics and articles 3,631 2,459 0.5 0.5
Wearing apparel, except fur apparel 8,608 4,800 1.1 0.5
Source: United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)[12]
Further information:

Aviation industry[edit source | editbeta]

Iran is producing 59-seat aircraft inside the country such as HESA IrAn-140 with the help of Russia and Ukraine and it will shift focus to 90 to 120-seat airplanes in the next step.[31] Iran also produces military attack aircraft such as HESA Saeqeh. With a population of 70 million, Iran needs to have 6,300 airplanes while it does not possess more than nine aircraft for every one million individuals.[32]

Pharmaceuticals and healthcare industry[edit source | editbeta]

The pharmaceutical industry in Iran began in its modern form in 1920 when the Pasteur Institute was founded. Iran has a well-developed pharmaceutical production capability, however, the country still relies on imports for raw materials and many specialized drugs. In 2009, Iran exported $74 million worth of "medical products" to countries such as Iraq, Afghanistan and Russia.[33]

Oil, gas and petrochemicals[edit source | editbeta]

Iran's oil and gas industry is the most active industry of the country.[21] Iran has the fourth largest reserves of oil and second largest reserves of gas in the world.
Domestic production of equipment in the nation's upstream oil industries has grown four-fold in as many years while procurement of equipment and goods accounts for around 60 to 65 percent of any oil project.


Electronics and computer industry


Iran is among the first five countries which have had a growth rate of over 20% and the highest level of development in telecommunication. Iran's Ministry of Communication and Information Technology along with TCI are developing the landline telephone network in the towns of Karbala and Najaf in Iraq.

Banking industry

Tourism industry

Naval industry

Machine tools

Machine Sazi Tabriz Group has managed to manufacture machines such as VMC850, VMC 1050, FP4ME, TME40NEW, and TC-20 HF and it has exported turning and milling machineries worth €1.5 million to Germany, Austria, Azerbaijan, Turkey and Malaysia during 2011.

Agriculture in Iran (cont-1)

Overall, Iran's soil is not well suited for large scale agriculture. About 12 percent of the country's total land area of 1,636,000 km² is cultivated. Still, 63% of the cultivable lands have not been used, and 185,000 km² of the present farms are being used with 50 to 60% capacity.
Both irrigated and rain-fed farming are used in Iran. In 2005, some 13.05 million hectares of land was under cultivation, of which 50.45% was allocated to irrigated farming and the remaining 49.55% to rain-fed system.
Rainfall & Agricultural Production
March 2001 March 2003 March 2005 March 2007 March 2008 March 2009 March 2010 March 2011
Production (Million Ton) 65 80 87 97 92 70 91 99
Rainfall (Millimeter) 52 70 69 62 75 51 61 69

Crops and plants

Map of Iran's major crops, circa 1978.
The wide range of temperature fluctuation in different parts of the country and the multiplicity of climatic zones make it possible to cultivate a diverse variety of crops, including cereals (wheat, barley, rice, and maize (corn)), fruits (dates, figs, pomegranates, melons, and grapes), vegetables, cotton, sugar beets and sugarcane, pistachios (World's largest producer with 40% of the world's output in 2005), nuts, olives, spices e.g. saffron (World's largest producer with 81% of the world's total output), raisin(world's third largest producer & second largest exporter), tea, tobacco, Berberis(world's largest producer) and medicinal herbs. More than 2,000 plant species are grown in Iran; only 100 of which are being used in pharmaceutical industries. The land covered by Iran's natural flora is four times that of Europe.
Wheat, rice, and barley are the country's major crops. The Iranian grain sector is highly regulated. Producers receive subsidised access to input costs such as fertiliser and pesticides, as well as a guaranteed support price for their crops.
Wheat: In 2007 Iran exported close to 600,000 tones of wheat (out of a production of 15 million tonnes). Approximately 6 million tons of wheat will be purchased from 15 countries in 2009 because of the drought in 2008, thus making Iran the largest wheat importer in the world. Wheat production reached 14 million tons in 2010. According to the FAO, Iran is the 12th leading producer of wheat in the world, with an average production of 14 million tons in 2011.
Rice: Iran's total rice production stands at 2.2 million tons per annum whereas annual consumption is about three million tons (2008). Iran has imported about 630,000 tons of rice from UAE, Pakistan and Uruguay worth $271 million in 2008 and 1.4 million tons of rice, worth $800 million in 2009. Iran's rice imports drop by 40% in 2010. Iran’s rice production in 2011 was 2.4 million tons, which increased from a total of 2.3 million tons in the previous year. Iran has 3,800 rice milling units (2009). The average per capita consumption of rice in Iran is 45.5 kg, which makes Iranians the 13th biggest rice consumers.
Sugar: In 2008, Iran had a shortage of 400,000 tons to 600,000 tons of sugar nationwide. Sugar companies suffered from massive imports of cheap sugar over the past few years, which led to a 50% drop in the capacity of the sugar industry’s production in 2008. The lack of import tariffs was the main reason for the domestic sugar industry suffering in this manner.
Pistachio: Iran ranks the world's largest pistachio producer and exporter followed by USA and Turkey. After oil and carpets, pistachios are Iran's biggest exports: about 200,000 tons for $840 million in 2008. More than 350,000 people earn a living from the nut, most of them in vast groves of the desert oases in southeast. Iran's share in the global pistachio market reached 50 percent in 2010.
Saffron: Saffron is cultivated in many regions of the country, the provinces of North Khorasan, Khorasan Razavi and South Khorasan in the northeast have the highest production share. Iran's saffron is exported to the United Arab Emirates, Spain, Japan, Turkmenistan, France, Italy and US. The northeastern Khorasan Razavi province exported 57 tons of saffron worth $156.5 million to 41 countries in 2010. The high production cost comes from the exhaustive process of extracting the stamens from the flower and the amount of flowers necessary to produce small amounts of spice but the process is in the process of being automated now. Iran is the largest producer of Saffron with 93.7% of the world's total production.
Tea: Tea production rose to 190,000 tons in 2007 from 130,000 tons in 2004. 75,000 tons of tea is smuggled into Iran each year (2008).
Horticulture: Close to 19 million tons of horticultural crops will be produced by the end of Fourth Plan (2005–10).

Fruits: Iran exported more than 35,000 tons of citrus fruits valued at $20.8 million to 36 countries in 2008. Iran is the largest producer of berries and stone fruits in the world. See also: Fruit in Iran.


Iranian shepherds moving their sheep. North-western Iran, winter 2008.
Of the country's livestock, sheep are by far the most numerous, followed by goats, cattle, donkeys, horses, water buffalo, and mules. The raising of poultry for eggs and meat is prevalent. One area where production infrastructure has progressed rapidly is the poultry sector. The face of the industry has now been transformed dramatically so that the entire supply chain process can take place domestically.
Iran has also a large dairy industry and imported close to two million tonnes of feed grain annually in 2006. The raising of Pigs is forbidden in Iran due to Islamic law.
Production of livestock increased over the past three years to reach 11.3 million tons in 2008 from the 10.6 million tons in 2007, and 9.9 million tons in 2006. Meat processing capacity is at 400,000 tons and 140 production units (2009). In 2008, per capita meat consumption was 26 kg. Iran produced 950,000 tons of red meat and 1,600,000 tons of chicken in 2010.


Access to the Caspian Sea, the Persian Gulf, the Gulf of Oman, and many river basins provides Iran the potential to develop excellent fisheries. The government assumed control of commercial fishing in 1952. One government-owned enterprise, the Northern Sheelat Company, was established in 1952, and a second, the Southern Sheelat Company, was established in 1961. In recent years, illegal and off-season fishing, discharge of industrial and agricultural pollutants, overfishing by other Caspian littoral states, and other unfavorable conditions have endangered Caspian fish resources. Between 1990 and 2004, Iran’s total annual Caspian Sea catch declined from 98,000 tons to 32,533 tons, including 463 tons of sturgeon, which yields high-quality caviar.
Iran has 1,786 kilometers of coastline on the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman. These southern waters are rich in fish and other marine resources. In 2004 the catch off the southern coast totaled 299,000 tons. This represented an average annual increase of 12.6 percent since 1976. The southern catch either is used directly by households and restaurants or processed and preserved by industry. Expansion of the fishery infrastructure would enable the country to harvest an estimated 700,000 tons of fish annually from the southern waters. However, increased pollution from the oil industry and other enterprises poses a serious threat to this area’s fishing industry.
Since the Revolution, increased attention has been focused on producing fish from inland waters. Between 1976 and 2004, the combined take from inland waters by the state and private sectors increased from 1,100 tons to 110,175 tons.
Important fish include sturgeon (yielding its roe for caviar), bream, whitefish, salmon, mullet, carp, catfish, perch, and roach. More than 200 species of fish are found in the Persian Gulf, 150 of which are edible, including shrimps and prawns.
Some 692,000 tons of aquatics will be produced across the country by the end of the 2008, of which 236,000 tons would be bred and the rest fished from the sea. Per capita consumption of seafood in Iran will reach 8.5 kg by March 2009 and 10 kg a year later.
Caviar: Iranian caviar export is expected to reach $22 million by March 2009. Iran is the world's largest producer and exporter of caviar in the world, exporting more than 300 tonnes annually.


In 2005 Iran’s forest area totaled about 11 million hectares, approximately 7 percent of the country’s surface area. Adequate rainfall and a favorable climate have created 1.5 million hectares of dense forest in the Caspian region. The remainder is distributed among western forests (3.6 million hectares), southern forests (434,000 hectares), desert forests (620,000 hectares), and forests scattered in other locations. Supervised by the Department of Natural Resources, the Caspian forests produced 820,000 cubic meters of timber products in 2004, more than 90 percent of which was for industrial use. The largest and most valuable woodland areas are in the Caspian region and the northern slopes of the Elburz Mts., where many of the forests are commercially exploitable and include both hardwoods and softwoods.[citation needed] Although forests and pastures are nationalized and 12 percent of forested land is nominally protected, forest destruction by the private sector is routine. Limited forest areas, mismanagement, and destruction have compelled Iran to import lumber and wood products. In addition, forest fires destroy 20,000 hectares of forest area each year. Between 1954 and 2004, an estimated 41 percent of Iran’s forest land was lost. The cutting of trees is rigidly controlled by the government, which also has a reforestation program.

Agriculture in Iran

Roughly one-third of Iran's total surface area is suited for farmland, but because of poor soil and lack of adequate water distribution in many areas, most of it is not under cultivation. Only 12% of the total land area is under cultivation (arable land, orchards and vineyards) but less than one-third of the cultivated area is irrigated; the rest is devoted to dry farming. Some 92 percent of agro products depend on security index stands at around 96 percent.

 The western and northwestern portions of the country have the most fertile soils. Iran's
One third of the total land area (35%) is used for grazing and small fodder production. Most of the grazing is done on mostly semi-dry rangeland in mountain areas and on areas surrounding the large deserts ("Dasht's") of Central Iran.
The non-agricultural surface represents 53% of the total area of Iran, as follows:
  • Abb. 35% of the country is covered by deserts, salt flats ("kavirs") and bare-rock mountains, not suited for agricultural purposes.
  • An additional 11% of Iran's total surface is covered by woodlands.
  • And 7% is covered by cities, towns, villages, industrial areas and roads.
At the end of the 20th century, agricultural activities accounted for about one-fifth of Iran's gross domestic product (GDP) and employed a comparable proportion of the workforce. Most farms are small, less than 25 acres (10 hectares), and thus are not economically viable, which has contributed to the wide-scale migration to cities. In addition to water scarcity and areas of poor soil, seed is of low quality and farming techniques are antiquated.

All these factors have contributed to low crop yields and poverty in rural areas. Further, after the 1979 revolution many agricultural workers claimed ownership rights and forcibly occupied large, privately owned farms where they had been employed. The legal disputes that arose from this situation remained unresolved through the 1980s, and many owners put off making large capital investments that would have improved farm productivity, further deteriorating production. Progressive government efforts and incentives during the 1990s, however, improved agricultural productivity marginally, helping Iran toward its goal of reestablishing national self-sufficiency in food production.

Friday, August 30, 2013

Rivers and lakes of Iran

Flowing into the 

The Karun-3 dam, one of the many large power dams on the Karun River

Mehran river Kookherd Hormozgān

Flowing into the Gulf of Oman

  • Dozdan River
  • Jagin River
  • Gabrik River
  • Bahu Kalat River (or Dashtiari River or Silup River)

Flowing into endorheic basins

Lake Urmia

Caspian Sea

Namak Lake


Hamun-e Jaz Murian

Sistan Basin

The Kajaki Dam on the Helmand River provides flood control, power and irrigation water to the Helmand Valley. Without the dam, the surrounding region would be arid and would not be able to produce crops.


  • Mashkid River (Mashkel River)

Karakum Desert[edit source 

Thursday, August 29, 2013

Geography of Iran

Iran is the eighteenth largest country in the world, with an area of 1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi). Its area roughly equals that of the United Kingdom, France, Spain, and Germany combined, or somewhat more than the US state of Alaska. Iran lies between latitudes 24° and 40° N, and longitudes 44° and 64° E. Its borders are with Azerbaijan (611 km (380 mi)) (with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave (179 km (111 mi)  and Armenia (35 km (22 mi)) to the north-west; the Caspian Sea to the north; Turkmenistan (992 km (616 mi)) to the north-east; Pakistan (909 km (565 mi)) and Afghanistan (936 km (582 mi)) to the east; Turkey (499 km (310 mi)) and Iraq (1,458 km (906 mi)) to the west; and finally the waters of the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman to the south.

Mount Damavand, Iran's highest point, is located in Amol County, Mazanderan.
Iran consists of the Iranian Plateau with the exception of the coasts of the Caspian Sea and Khuzestan Province. It is one of the world's most mountainous countries, its landscape dominated by rugged mountain ranges that separate various basins or plateaux from one another. The populous western part is the most mountainous, with ranges such as the Caucasus, Zagros and Alborz Mountains; the last contains Iran's highest point, Mount Damavand at 5,610 m (18,406 ft), which is also the highest mountain on the Eurasian landmass west of the Hindu Kush.
The northern part of Iran is covered by dense rain forests called Shomal or the Jungles of Iran. The eastern part consists mostly of desert basins such as the Dasht-e Kavir, Iran's largest desert, in the north-central portion of the country, and the Dasht-e Lut, in the east, as well as some salt lakes. This is because the mountain ranges are too high for rain clouds to reach these regions. The only large plains are found along the coast of the Caspian Sea and at the northern end of the Persian Gulf, where Iran borders the mouth of the Shatt al-Arab (or the Arvand Rūd) river. Smaller, discontinuous plains are found along the remaining coast of the Persian Gulf, the Strait of Hormuz and the Gulf of Oman.


Climate map of Iran (Köppen-Geiger)
Iran's climate ranges from arid or semiarid, to subtropical along the Caspian coast and the northern forests. On the northern edge of the country (the Caspian coastal plain) temperatures rarely fall below freezing and the area remains humid for the rest of the year. Summer temperatures rarely exceed 29 °C (84.2 °F). Annual precipitation is 680 mm (26.8 in) in the eastern part of the plain and more than 1,700 mm (66.9 in) in the western part.
To the west, settlements in the Zagros basin experience lower temperatures, severe winters with below zero average daily temperatures and heavy snowfall. The eastern and central basins are arid, with less than 200 mm (7.9 in) of rain, and have occasional deserts. Average summer temperatures exceed 38 °C (100.4 °F). The coastal plains of the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman in southern Iran have mild winters, and very humid and hot summers. The annual precipitation ranges from 135 to 355 mm (5.3 to 14.0 in).


Iran's wildlife is composed of several animal species including bears, gazelles, wild pigs, wolves, jackals, panthers, Eurasian Lynx, and foxes. Domestic animals include, sheep, goats, cattle, horses, water buffalo, donkeys, and camels. The pheasant, partridge, stork, eagles and falcon are also native to Iran.

One of the most famous members of Iranian wildlife is the critically endangered Asiatic cheetah, also known as the Iranian Cheetah, whose numbers were greatly reduced after the Iranian Revolution. Today there are ongoing efforts to increase its population and introduce it back in India. Iran had lost all its Asiatic Lion and the now extinct Caspian Tigers by the earlier part of the 20th century.