Thursday, April 30, 2009

Nepal,pictures from internet


Maya devi temle kirtipur, nepal

Kathmandu, from Kirtipur


Indra chawk, nepal

Bhaktapur, Nepal

Wednesday, April 29, 2009

Nepal, Position of Women

Available reports indicate that the position of women is prominent in the recruiting profile. At least 1/5 th. or 1/3 rd. of the cadre and combatantsmay be women. Reportedly, every village has a revolutionary women's organisation. According to Jane's intelligence review report of oct. 2001, there re usually two women in each unit of 35- 4- men, and they are used to gather intelligence and act as couriers. Baburai Bhattarai was quoted as saying in Spacetime on April 18, 2003, that 50 % of cadres at the lower lavel, 30 % of soldiers, and 10 % of of members of central committee of the outfit were women . Durga Pokhrel, then chairperson of National Womwn's commission , who visited more than 25 Maoist controlled districts, stated on July 3, 2003, uring a talk delivered at the Nepal Council of World Affairs that percentage of women cadres could be as high as forty a women's group, the All nepal Women's association (Revolutionary), is alleged to be a front outfit of the CPN_M.
Areas Of Operation
The guerrillas operate to varying degrees in 68 0f the 75 districts that comprise Nepal. Their influence varies between moderate to very strong in these districts. In the districts of Rolpa, Rukum, Jajrkot, Salyan, Pyuthan and Kalikot in mid-western Nepal, Govt. presence was limited to the district head quarters with the rest of each district under Maoist control.
End to the people's war
After holding the people's war for ten years, the CPN(Maoist) sat down for peace talks after the successful accomplishment of the people's movement in 2002/03. The twelve point agreement between the then seven party alliance and the Maoist rebels in Delhi created a path for peaceful agitation against the direct rule of the king. The other important point of the twelve point agreement was to end the autocracy in Nepal. The people's war conucted by CPN(Maoist)created political consciousness among the people at the gras root level and to some extent awareness for socio-economic transformation.
After the peace talk held between the king and the CPN(Maoist) rebels were ready to put an end to the ten years long people's war.

Nepal, Prachanda Path, continued

Particularly the growing influence of the party in the districts is really praiseworthy. The situation in Nepal and the World is Complex. Due to the weakness in the international communist movement we see many a people's war bogged down in a struggle for survival for decades , in this situation it is no doubt that the Nepalese Party and people had made historic advances. But we feel there is need for caution with the present tactics. Moeover, we think that the Maoists forming a Govt. jointly with the comprador bourgeois-feudalparties such as the reactionary Nepali Congress , revisionist CPN-UML and the other parties of the ruling classes will not really work out as they represent the two diametrically opposite class interest.

Nepal, Prachanda Path, a new doctrine

In second conference of the CPN (Moaist), a post for chairman was created for Prachanda. So far, Prachanda was the chief of the organisation as general secretary and submitted a report titled "The great leap forward , an inevitable need of history."Prachanda path is a different kind of uprising, which can be described as as the fusion of a proptracted people's warstrategy, adpted by Mao in China, and Russian model of armed revolution. Prof. Lok raj Baral, in his writing about PrachandaPath says that this doctrine doesnot apparently break with Marxism and Leninism but finds that these doctrines aren't able to be replicated in Nepal as it was done in the past. MOst of the Maoist Leaders think that the adoption of Prachand Path after the second national conference is what nudged the party into moving ahead with a clear vision ahead after five years of' people's war'.
Senior Maoist leader Mohan Vaidya alias Kiran says , ' just as Marxism in Germany, Leninism in Russia, and Maoism in China so Prachanda Path is Nepal's identity of revolution.
Maoist can not abondon Prachanda Path, says
Mohan Baidya today said that his party will not unite with any other party at the cost of prachanda Path. But this is not all about Prachanda. A communique said that since 2005,Prachanda, the leader of the Communist Party (Maoist), has become a lvable mascot of India's liberal elite.They see nothing but positive in him .His pre-2005 record has been forgotten-the brutal massacre of inncent civilians in different parts of Nepal by the well-trained, well armed and well motivated insurgent army raised by him, his contacts with Shinning Path Guerrillas of Peru, his role in helping the Maoist in India, particularly in Andhra Pradesh, his fulminations against India , particularly against Indian Army , his devotions to Mao-Zedung's thoughts his raising of insurgent army with the clandestine support of the royal family in order to use it against India,his turning the insurgents against the monarchy after having benefitted from its largesse.
Naxals criticise Prachanda, Nepal developments
(with thanks from people's March, July 2006 issue)
"There is need for caution with the present tactics "
CPN(maoist) may be giving over emphasis to the possibility of advancing the movement through the constituent assembly; We, in India, have been watching the ongoing developments in Nepal with great interest. The mlitant mass agitation by the people of Nepal against the reactionary, autocratic regime of King Gyanendra in April, in the backdrop of the powerful-armed struggle , was indeed historic. The people of Nepal had inscribed a glorious chapter in the annals of Nepal by forcing the fascist king to relinquish his adamant stand and to concede power to the parliament.

Sunday, April 26, 2009

Nepal, Towards Maoism (Continued)

The People's War, lodged on Feb. 13, 1996, aiming to establish a "People's Democracy" against "feudalism,imperialism and reformists" was due to the failure of the Nepalese Government to respond to a memorendumpresented to the Prime Minister Sher Bahadur Deuba on February 4,1996. The memorendum listed 40 demands included 1. abolition of royal privileges, 2. the abrogation of the Mahakali Treaty with Indiaon the distribution of water and electricity, 3. the deliniation of the border between the two countries.
The Organisational structure of the CPN-Maoist has three tier arragements, 1.Party's standing Committees, 2. People's Liberation Army, 3. United front.
At the final stage, in early 2003, CPN-M demands a strength of:
1. 31,500 combatants, 2. 48,000 militia, 3. 1,50,000 active cadres, 4. 1,00,000 sympathisers.
Prachanda Path, a new doctrine
Born in Nepal's Kaski District, some 140 km west of Kathmandu, in a paddy field inDhikurpokhariVDC, Lewade Village. Prachanda Spent much of his childhood in the Chitwan District. He got his bachelor degree in Agricultural Science from the The Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science (IAAS) in Rampur, Chitwan, and was once emploed at a rural rural development project sponsored by USAID, the project site being Jajarkot.
He was drawn leftist party since Nepal was very poor, and joined the underground commnist party of Nepal (Fourth Convention). he became general secretary of the Communist Party of Nepal (Masal) in 1989. After many permutations and combinations this party became Communist party of Nepal (Maoist). He lived underground even after the restoration of democracy in 1990. A little known figure became, Prachanda, became the leader of both the Party wing and the people's army wing, while Dr. Baburam Bhattraibecame the parliamentary leader of the United Front. His real name was Pushpa Kamal Dayal. Like Lenin or Ho Chi Minh he began to use the prachada, meaning "Intense".

Friday, April 24, 2009

Nepal, Towards Maoism (continued)

The Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) is a political Party in Nepal, founded in1994 and currently led by Pushpa Kamal Dayal, popularly known as Prachnda. By prolonged people's war in against the monarchythe CPN (M) became the largest party in the Nepalese constituent assembly election, 2008. At present the party is the major ruling party in Nepal, leading a coalition Govt. comprisingof the next largest communist fraction, CPNUML.following merger with communist party of Nepal (unity-centre Masal), its full current name is the United Communist party of Nepal (maoist) .
The Party announced a "peoples war" on February13,1996,with the slogan, "let us march ahead on the path of struggle towards establishingthe people's ruleby wreaking the reactionary ruling system of state." they believe in the phi;losophy of Mao Ze dung that "political power grows out of the barrel of a gun". They also draw inspiration from the 'Revolutionary International Movement' and 'Peru's left wing guerrilla movement'.
Revolutionary Internationalist Movement:

The Revolutionary Internationalist Movement is an International Communist organisation which uphols Marxism-Lenininism-Maoism. Founded in 1984, it seeks to unite the parties, believing in those doctrines, of the world into a single political tendency. it believes that Maoist strategyis most effective inthe developing worldand actively supports parties waging People's War. The RIM publishes a political journal called A world to Win. It was formed at a conference in March 1984. The particioating members were,
Founder Members :
1. Union of Iranian Communists (Sarbedaran)
2. Central reorganisation committee, Communist Party of India, (Marxist-Lenenist)
3.Ceylon Communist Party,
4. Communist Collective of Agit/Prop (Italy)
5. Communist Party of Colombia (Marxist-Leninist), Mao Tsetung Regional Committee,
6. Communist party of Peru,
7. Communist Party of Turkey (Marxist-Leninist),
8. Hitian revolutionary Internationalist Group,
9. Communist Party of Nepal, (Masal),
10. Newzealand Red Flag group,
11. Nottingham Communist Group (Britain)
12. Proleterian Communist Organisation, Marxist-Leninist (Italy)
13. Revolutionary Communist Group of Columbia
14. Leading Committee, Revolutionary Communist Party,India
15. Revolutionary Communist Party, USA
16. Revolutionary Communist Union [Dominican Republic]
17. Stocknort Communist Group (Britain)
Members at Present
Many of these organisations are defunct or changed their names over the years as their strength has grown.
The Communist Party of Nepal (Masal) left over differences of political line, but (much larger) a group,the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) is a member.
Indian Member Organisations amalgamated into the Communist {arty of India ( Maoist), which is not currently a member.
New forces have also entered the RIM's fold in the following years, incliding the Communist (Marxist) Party of Afganistan.
The members 1. the Marxist Communist Party (Turkey), 2. the Communist party of Peru ( Shining Path) are currently engaged in armed conflict. The RIM also supports revolutionary wars led by the Communist Party of the Philipines and by the Communist Party of India (Marxist).
Revolutionary Left Movement (Peru)

Luis Felipe de la Puente Uceda
Republic of Peru (Mark red)
Luis de la Puente Ucedaand his group APRA Rebelde,founded in Peru in 1962, a Revolutionary left ( Marxist) movement, a splinter group, had rallied the the 1950s and 1960s. inspired by the Cuban revolution and close to a non-alliened positionwhich opposed itselef both to the Communist Party of Peru , the Soviet union and China, the group initiated guerrilla actions aginstthe Govt. in 1965. After its leader's deathend of 1965 , the MIR splitted into three different faction. The one of them, the Mir-EM, would merge with the revoutionary Socialist Party (Marxist-Leninist) in 1982 to create the Movimiento Revlucionario Tupac Amru (MRTA). The two others factions, MIR-VR and MIR-IV, would join the parliamentary wing coalitionIzquierda Unida in the in the early 1980s.

Thursday, April 23, 2009

Nepal, Towards Maoism

The communist party of Nepal (Maoist) insurgency grew out of the increasing radicalisation and fragmentation of leftwing parties following the emergence of democracy in 1990. The united peoples front --a coalition of leftwing parties --participated in electionof 1991, but the Maoist wing failed to win the minimum three percent of the vote leading to their exclusion from voter lists in the election of 1994. In response they abondoned electoral polics and in 1996 launched the insurgency.
Communist Party Of Nepal (Maoist)
The Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist), CPN(M) , was formed following a split in the Communist Party of Nepal ( Unity Centre) and it used the name 'CPN (Unity Centre)' until 1995
Long Live Marxism-leninism-Maoism and 'Prachanda Path'. Mural in Kathmandu made by the Madhesi Rashtriya mukti Morcha.
A family in a Maoist- controlled valley
Communist Party of Nepal
Like Communist Party of India, Communist Party of Nepal was also formed outside Nepal. In fact, it was founded in Calcutta,India on April29, 1949. CPN was formed to struggle against the autocratic Rana regime, feudalism and Imperialism. The founding general Secretary was Pushpa Lal Shrestha. CPN has got some good result in its history of performance. It played an important role in overthrowing the Rana regime in the year 1951 but after the Raksha dal revolt it was banned in Jan. 1952, though the ban on the party was lifted in 1956.
The first conference of the party was held secretly in Kathmandu in 1957. It had got good relation with the then united Communist Party of India when Ajoy ghosh was the secretary. It had to undergo repression by the nepal Govt. Some conferences were also held in India.The first split of the Party took place during 3rd. congress, in 1962.

Wednesday, April 22, 2009

Nepal, Democratic Reform

Being unsatsfied with the parliamentary democracy adopted by the king Birendra, people of Nepal launched a "Jana Andolan" under the leadership of Nepali congress and alliance of the left parties. As a result, in 50 years Nepal saw its first parliamentary election in which Nepali Congress won the majority. But that is not the end of the people's movement, it was just the begging.
The economic crisis and enormous price rise led to political agitation , in 1992, guided by the radical left in the name of Joint people's Agitation Committee. Violent incidents began to occur in the evening on the day , 6th April. They called for a general strike resulting in the clashes between police and agitators. According to Human Rights Organisation of Nepal 14 persons including several on-lookers had been killed in polce firing. Nepali Govt. also took some repressive measures, e.g. Operation Romeo, operation kilo sera II in which the lives of many activist were taken . As a result a radical left movement were started in and a Joint Peple's Agitation Committee was set up by the varios groups. A general strike was called for April 6 . Violent incidents began to occur .on the evening ahead of the strike. Clashes between strikers and police caused the death of two left activist.

Tuesday, April 21, 2009

Nepal, Rana Administration

The old king's palace on a hill in Gorkha

Rana Administration

Factionalism among the royal familyled to a period of instability after the war in 1846. Queen rajendralakshmi plotted to overthrow Jang Bahadur, a fast- rising military leader who threaten her power. The plotwas uncovered and the queen had several hundred princes and chieftenants executed after after an armed clash.This came to be known as the Kot Massacre.Ultimately , Bahadur won and founded the Rana Dynasty, leading to the Rana autocracy.The king was made a titular figure and the prime minister was made all powerful and hereditary.
Rani (queen) of Nepal surrounded by her ladies- in- waiting,1920.
The Ranas were staunchly pro-British and helped the British during the Sepoy Rebelion in 1857 and both world wars of the twentieth century. In 1923 the United Kingdom and Nepal signed an agreementof friendship, recognising Nepal's Independence.
In the late 1940s, political parties became more critical about Rana's autocracy and they launched a pro-democracy movement. China occuppied Tibet in 1950, making keen on the stability of Nepal. To avoid an expensive military campaign , India sponsored Trivuban as nepal's new kingin 1951, and a new government , mostly comprised of members of the Nepali Congress party.
In early 1959, King Mahendra issued a new constitution, and the first democratic elections for a national assembly were held. The Nepali congress party , a moderate socialist group, gained a substantial victory. its leader , B.P.Koirala,formed a govt. and served as prime minister.
But King mahendra dismissed the Koirala Govt.and promulgated a new constitution on dec.16, 1962, which established a "partyless" system of panchayas(council) which the king thinks more close to Nepali's traditions. As a pyramidal structyre progressing from village assemblies to a Rastriya Panchayat (national parliament) . this system enshrined abslute power of the monarchy.
King Mahendra was succeeded by his 27-year old son , king Birendra, in 1972. in a referendum panchayat system won by a narrow mar gin.In 1989, "Jan andolan" forced the king to accept multi-party parliament, which came about 1991and Girija Prasad koirala fron NPC became the prime minister. but the govt. policy tends to radical movementand violence began to take place.

Monday, April 20, 2009

Nepal, Modern History

Modern History
Modern Nepal was created in the latter half of the eighteenth century when Prithwi Narayan Shah, the ruler of the small principality of Gorkha , united a number of independent hill states to form the Gorkha Kingdom. He conquered the Kathmanduvalley in 1768.After Shah's death ,the Shah dynasty began to expand into India.
Hindu temples in Patan, the capital of one of the three medieval kingdoms
Between 1781 and 1791, Nepal invaded Tibet and robbed the Tashilhunpo Monastery. Alarmed, the chinese emperor Qianlong dispatched a sizeable army which forced the Nepalese to retreat
and pay heavy reparations. After 1800, the heirs of Prithwi Narayan Shah were unable to maintain political control, an a period of internal turmoil followed.
Inview of the Anglo-Nepalese war (1815-1816) Nepal lost some territories west of the Kali River, including the present day Uttarakhand state and several Punjab hills states. The treaty of Sugauli ceded parts of the Terai and Sikkim to the companyin exchange for Nepalese autonomy.

Sunday, April 19, 2009

Nepal, Age of principilaties

Ancient Indian epics such as the Mahabharata mention the Kiratas,the inhabitants of Nepal in the first mellionnium BCE. The people who were probably of Tibeto-Burman ethnicity lived in Nepal 2,500 years ago. Ramayana, which refers to the era earlier than Mahabharata ,says Mithila (later known as Janakpur)was the birth place of the godessSita. the presence of sites such as the Valmikashraminicates the presence of Aryan culture in nepal at that period.
Indo-Aryan tribes entered the valley around 1500 BCE. Around 1000 BCE small kingdomsand confederationsof clans arose. Sidhartha Gautama(563-483 BCE),a prince of the Shakhys confederationrenounced his loyaltyto lead an ascetic life and came to be known as the Budha ("the one who has awakened) .
Himalayas from the top of Tibet
By 250 BCE, the region came under the influence of the Mauryas Empire of northern India, and latter became a puppet state under the Gupta Dynastyin the fourth century.

The Erid and barren Himalayan landscape
From the ;ate fifth century, rulers called the Licchavisgoverned the area, although the extent of their control over the country was uncertain.
By the late 11th. century southrn Nepal came under the influence of the Chalukya Empire of southertn India.Under the Chalukyas, Nepal's religious establishment changed as the kings patronised hinduism instead of Budhism prevailing at that time.

Terraced farming on the foothills of the Himalayas
By the early 13th. century, Arimalla was the first king of a dynasty whose rulers names ended with the suffixes Malla (wrestler). There was a period of upheaval before these kings consolidated their power.
13th. century Nepal was pillaged by the Delhi Sultanate of northern India.King Jaysthitimalla united most of the country by the late fourteenth century, but in 1482 the kingom was carved into three smaller areas, 1. Kathmandu,2. Patan, 3. Bhadgaon.

Saturday, April 18, 2009

Nepal, Licchavi Rule

It is not clear exactly when the Lucchavi kingdom began. From the findings of the ancient capitalof Handigaun,it appears that Licchavi rulers were in power on two occasions from about 200 CE to the 5th. century, and from about 750 to 1200 CE. The former era was Asaka or Saka era where as the 2nd. one Mandeva II's era

In between in the 4th. century CE, the country fell under the influence of Indian Gupta Empire, whose cultural diffusion is evident, despite their lack of direct control of Nepal.

Thakuri Rule

By 879, the Licchavi era was succeeded by the Thakuri ynasty. A grim period of instability and invasions often referred to as the "Dark Ages" followed, but Kathmanu valley's strategic location ensured the kingdom's survival and growth.

Map of Nepal
Malla Dynasty
Several centuries later , the Thakuri king, Ardiva, founded the Malla dynasty, another renaissance of Nepali culture.
Chalukhya Dynasty
By the late 11th. century , southern Nepal came under the occupation of the Chalukhya Empireof southern India. Under the Chalukhya, hinduism was patronised than the budhism.

Nepal, Kirat Period

Nepal's recorded history began with the kiratis, who arrived in the 7th. or 8th. century BCEfrom the east to KathmunduValley.They were sheep farmers and fond of long knives. They ruled for about 1225 years (800 BCE-100CE)they had 29 kings, starting from Yalamba-First Kirat King. He laid the foundation of Kirat dynastyafter defeating the last ruler of Abhir dynasty. They made Matatirtha their Kingom. Yalambar had extendedhis kingdom to Tistain the east and Trisidi in the west. It iwas saidthat he had gone to witness the battle of Mahabharatabetween the Pandavas and Kauravas. He was so powerful that Lord Krishna beheaded him prior to the battle suspecting that he might fight for the Kauravas.
During the rule of 7th. Kirat king, Jitedasti, Lord Gautam Budha had visited the valley with his several disciples and also visited other important places like Swayambhu, Guheswrietc.
During the 14th. Kirat king Asoke came to Kathmandu valley with his daughterPrinces Charumati and arranged her marriage with a local prince,Devpal.
During the 15th. Kirat king Mahavir Jain in India came to preach him.
Birth of Budha
Nepal gave birth to Sidhartha gautam Budha son of Shakya Sudhodhan, one of the Shakya Clan whose capital was Kapilvastu.

Maya Devi Temple in Lumbini, Nepal

Thursday, April 16, 2009

Nepal, Ancient History

Nepal : Early Ages
The history of Nepal is characterised by its isolated position in the Himalayas and its two dominant neighbours China and India.
Neolithic tools found in the Kathmandu Valley indicate that people had been living in this Himalayan region for at least 9,000 years. It appears that people who were probably of Kirant ethnicity lived in Nepal more than 2,500 years back.
The word nepal was derived from the Nepa, the old name of Kathmandu Valley in Nepal Bhasa, the language of Newars, the early inhabitants of the valley. There were also other stories regarding the name of Nepal.
1. Nepal is derived from the sanskrit word nipalaya, which means "at the foot of mountains" or "abode at the foot", may be an eastern equivalent of the European toponym 'Predmont."
2. it comes from the tibetan "niyampal" meaning "holy land."
3. it is a combination of word NE means wool, and PAL , means a tented house. Long ago, nepal was a good producer of wooland the houses were used for for storing the wool hence the word NE_PAL.
4. It is derived from the sanskrit word NEP. with the suffix AL ,meaning cow herders (gopal) who came from the Ganges Plain.
5. As per the schpolar Rishikesh Shsha, a sage (muni) named Ne became the protector (pala)i.e. "land protected by Ne."
No records of early history of Nepal is available only some legends and documented references give us someinformation as follows :
1. The highly revered Sita ( from epic Ramayana) was born in Mithila, currently known as Janakpur in Nepal, the virtues queen of Hindu divine king Lord Rama.
2.The presence of historical sitese.g. Vamiki Ashram, indicates the presence of sanatana Hindu culture in nepal at that period.
3. The Epic Mahabharata mentions the Kiratas among the inhabitants of Nepal. Kirati King Yalambar had the the dubious honor of being stain in the battle of Mahabharata,in which Gos and mortalsfought alongside each other.Legends credits him with meeting Indra, the Lord of Heaven, who ventured into the valley in human guise.
4. According to some of the chronicles the successors of Ne were the gopalava-si or cowherd family, whose names often used in -gupta and were said to have ruled to some 491 years. known as "Buffalo header dynasty."
5. Inscriptions wee found of living a people before the Kirata.
Yalamba - First Kirat King

Tuesday, April 14, 2009


History of Nepal

Mythology of Manjushree

Gopal Era

Mahispal Era

Kirat Era

Licchavi Era

Thakuri Era

Malla Era

Shah Era

Rana Era

Democratic Era

History of South Asia

Stone Age......................................70,000-3300 BCE

Mehrgarh Culture........................ 7,000-3300 BCE

Indus Valley civilisation............. 3300-1700 BCE

Late Harappa Culture................ 1700-1300 BCE

Iron Age...................................... 1200-1 BCE

Maha Janapadas........................ 700-300 BCE

Magadha Empire....................... 545 BCE-550

Maurya Empire......................... 321-184 BCE
Chera Empire ........................... 300 BCE-1200 CE

Chola Empire............................. 300BCE -1279 CE

Pandyan Empire...................... 250BCE-1345 CE

Satavahana.............................. 230 BCE-220CE

Middle kingdoms................... 1 CE-1279CE

Kushan Empire ....................60-240 CE

Gupta Empire ....................280-550

Pala Empire .......................750-1174

Chalukya Dynasty ..............543-753

Rashtrakuta ......................753-982

Western Chalukya Empire ....973-1189

Yadava Empire ..................850-1334

Hoysala Empire ...............1040-1346

Kakatiya Empire ..............1083-1323

Islamic Sultanates ....................1206-1596

Delhi Sultanates .........................1206-1526

Deccan Sultanates ....................1400-1596

Ahom Kingdom ......................1228-1826

Vijoynagar Empire ...............1336-1646

Mughal Empire .....................1526-1858

Maratha Empire .................1674-1818

Sikh Confederacy ...................1716-1799

Sikh Empire ............................1799-1840

Company Rule in India ..........1757-1858

British Raj ..............................1858-1947

Partition of India ...................1947.


Monday, April 13, 2009

Nepal, introduction

Nepal, officially Federal Democratic rep. of Nepal, is a land locked country in south Asia. it is one of the most populous country in the world. it is bordered to the north by People's Rep. of China, to the south, east , and west is India.
It is slightly smaller in size than that of Orssa. Its national average per capita income using atlas method (2003 est.) is 240 $ . Its rank from the top is 191 and from the bottom is 14th. in the world and 2nd. poorest country in Asia. The first one is Tajikistan whose av. per capita income is 190 $ .

Uganda (continued)

Uganda's economy has great potential,endowed with significant natural resources, including ample fertile land,regular rain fall,and mineral deposits. It maintained rapid economic growth. However, chronic political instability and erratic economic mangementproduced a record of persistent economic declinethat left Ugandaamong the world's poorest and least developed country.
Pictures of Uganda :
Queen Elizabeth national park

Sesse, Lake Victoria

Kibale forest national park

Sunday, April 12, 2009

Uganda, post independence period

The constitution was changed in 1963 to satisfy an alliance between the uganda People's Congress and the Kabaka Yekka Party. Thi s created a post of the head of state called the president and one vice-president. The UPC govt. appointed Edward Muteesa II, Kabaka (king) of Buganda, as president and the commander in chief of the armed forces , William Wilberforce nadiope , the kyabazing of Busoga as vice-president. in 1966 Milton obote over through the King,changed the constitution and obote became the prseident and election was avoided. Obote was deposed twice, both time by military coup.
Idi Amin (1925-20030 seized power in 1971,ruling the country with military for the coming decade. Idi amin's rule cost the lives of 3,00,000 Ugandans. his reign was ended after the Uganda-Tanzania war in 1979. This led to thereturn of obotewho deposed once more by general Tito Okello in 1985. Okello ruled for six months till he was removed by the national Resistance army (NRM) under the leadership of Yoweri Museveni, after the so called "bush war."
Miseveni had been in power since 1986, in mid-1990, he was lauded by the west as part of a new generation of African leaders. His presidency had included involvement in the civil war in the Democratic Rep. of Congo (DRC) and other conflicts inthe the great lakes region, as well as the civil war against the lord's resistance Army. The lord's resistance Army was guilty of numerous crimes against humanity and child slavery and mass killing.they had killed thousands and displaced millions for years.
Camp in north uganda
In 2007, uganda deployed soldiers to the African union peacekeeping mission in Somalia.

Yoweri Museveni, President of uganda

Mount kadam in Uganda

Uganda Woman

Saturday, April 11, 2009

Uganda, The Colonial era

During the period 1889 when Mwanga was Kabaka,he was visited by Carl Peters, the German colonialist,and signed a treaty of friendship with Germany. Great Britain grew alarmed at the growth of German influence and the potenial threat to its own position on the Nile . In 1890, great Britain and Germany signed a treaty that gave the British rights to what was to become Uganda. in 1900 an agreement was signed with Buganda that gave the kingdomconsiderable autonomy. in 1904 the commercial cultivaion of cottonwas begun, and cotton soon became the major export crop; coffee and sugar productionaccelerated in 1920s. few permanent European settlers arrived in Uganda, many Asians (Indians, Pakistanis and Goans) settled in Uganda.

In 1901 a railroad from mombasa on the Indian ocean reached Kisumu, on lake Victoria, was connected by boat with uganda; the railroad was later extended to jinja and Kampala. in 1902 the eastern Province of Uganda was transferred to the British East Africa protectorate (kenya) for administrative reasons.
In 1921 a legislative counil for the protectorate was established and first african member was admitted in 1945.In 1961 there were three political parties in uganda. and on oct., 1962 uganda became Independent with A. Milton Obote, a Lango leader of the Uganda People's Congress (UPC), as Prime Minister.

Friday, April 10, 2009

Uganda, Pre-colonial Period.

The inhabitants of Uganda were hunter gatherers untill 1,700 - 2,300years ago who were migrated from central and western Africa. They developed iron working skills and new ideas of social and political organisation, followed by the Empire of Kitara in fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. the first one was Bunyoro-Kitara,and in later centuries, Buganda and Ankole. The name of uganda came from the word Buganda.The region was divided linguasticallyby Lake Kyoga into a Bantu south and Nilotic north. The pastoralist Nilotes of the north were organised by lineage into small clans.While cattle raiding was practiced extensibly, the highly decentralised nature of northern societies precluded the possibility ofof large scale war fare. The intrduction of plantain as a staple crop in the south around 1000 AD permitted dense populatios to form in the areanorth of lake Victoria. one of the early powerful states to emerge was Bunyoro. But due to the internal defect they resulted in the continuous civil wars. According to legend , a refugee from a Bunyoro conflict, Kimara, became kabaka of the contemponous kingdom of Buganda , on the shores of Lake Victoria.
Buganda govt. was based on a stable succession arrangement, allowing the kingdom to grow in size by the mid-nineteenth centurythrough a series of wars of expansion, becoming the ominant power in the region with a force of infantry.
There were three main ethnic groups in Uganda. its population was predominantly rural and its population density was higher in in the southern region.other than african there were non-indegenous races like asian, European and Arabian. Until 1972, Asians constituted the largest non-indegenous ethnic group in Uganda. In that year the Idi Amin expelled 50,000 asians who who had been engaged in trade , industry, and various the years since Amin's overthrew in 1979, asians had slowly returned reducing the number to 30,000. When Arab traders moved inland from their enclaves along the Indian Ocean coast of East Africa and reached in 1830s. they were followed in the 1860s by British explorers searching for the source of Nile. protestant missionaries entered the country in1877, followed by Catholic missionaries in 1879.
The United kingdom placed the area under the charter of the British East africa Company in 1888, and ruled it as a protectorate from 1894. As several other territories and chiefdoms were integrated, the final protectorate called Uganda took shape in 1914.

Uganda, Introduction

Uganda, officially Republic of Uganda, is a landlocked country situated in the east of Africa. In its north is Sudan, in east is kenya, in west is DRC and in south is Rwanda and Tanzania.
It is slightly smaller than UTTAR PRADESH. It is sometimes said that Uganda is Africa condensed in the good sense of term. it is the home of highest mountain range in Africa, has greatest national park, source of the mighty river Nile and so on.
But its national average per capita income using atlas methonin 2003 estimate is 240 $ only i.e.
less than a $ per day. Its rank from the top is 192nd. and from the bottom is13th.

Thursday, April 9, 2009

Rwanda, After genocide :AD 1994-2008

In the chaos of mid-1994 the RPF, capable of putting into the field an extremely well disciplined guerrilla force, makes rapid progress against the Rwandan army . By July RPF troops are in Kigali, and a provisional Government is formed . By the end of August almost the entire country is uner control.
Though largely led by Tutsis, the RPF has been from the start committed a racial equality. This is achieved in the first cabinet , whose members reflect the numerical balance in the country . Sixteen of its members are Hutus , six are Tutsis. But if the RPF government rid itself of racism, this ideal proves very much harder to achieve in the nation ( though an important first step is abolishing the ethnic identity cards, in use since colonial times).
The immediate problem is the refugee camps just over the border in Zaire. There are some 1.1 million Rwandans in these camps , most of them are Hutus. But these are not normal camps. They are extensions of HUTU POWER in exile. mong the orinary refugees are members of the Interahmwe- the killers responsible for the genocide- who have fle over the borders to avoid the advancing RPF.
Thus every where the Hutu-tutsi problems goes on increasing , even within the camps. An attempt is madeto minimise the trouble but a fair judgement is within the reach.
Peace with the DRC and a new constitution:
Rwanda continued fighting against Dem. Rep. of the Congo throughout its four year civil war. Finally in July 2002, the two countries signed a peace accord.rwanda promised to withdraw its 35,000 troops from the conglese border , Congo in turn agreed to disarm the thousands of Hutu militiamen in its territory ,who threaten Rwandan security. In May 93 % of rwandans voted to approve new constitution that instituted a balance of political power between Hutu and Tutsi.In june 2004, Pasteur Bizimungu, the Hutu president , was sentenced to 15 years in prison on charges of inciting ethnic hatred.
In 2004, a French judge asserted that Kagame was responsible for the 1994 plane crash inciting genocide and killing of 8,00,000 people. But he denied. in @008, Rose Kabuye, a senior aide to Kagame was arrested at Frankfurt international airport on a warrant from france and charged in connection with the crash. A UN court in Dec. 2008 convicted Col Theoneste Bagosora, Aa Hutu extremist , of genocide for his involvement in 1994 massacre of 8,00,000 people. He was the highest ranking military official charged in connection with the Genocide.

Wednesday, April 8, 2009

Rwanda, genocidal plan (continued)

Encouraged by the Pan-Africanists, Hutu advocated in the Catholic Church, and by Christian Belgians (who were increasingly influential in the Cong) , inflamed the sentiments of the Hutus against the aristocratic Tutsi. Moreover, the United Nations mandate that the Tutsi overlord class and the Belgian Colonialists attitude towards the Tutsis added to the growing unrest. The "Hutu emancipation movement"headed by Gregoire Kalyibanda, founder of PARMEHUTU, wrote the " Hutu Manifesto" in 1957. The group quickly militarised. In adition to this, in 1959,Tutsi forces had beaten a Hutu politician,Dominique Mbonyumutwa, and rumours of his death set off a violent backlash against the Tutsi known as "the wind of destruction."
Thousands of Tusis were killed and many thousands, including the Mwami, fled to neighbouring Uganda before the Belgian commando arrived to quel the violence. Tutsi refugees also fled to the south of Kivu province of the Congo. Eventually they becme a primary force in the 1st. and 2nd. Congo wars.
Between 1961-62, Tutsi guerrilla groups staged attacks into Rwanda from neighbouring countries . Rwandan Hutu-based troops responded and thousands more Tutsis were killed in the clashes. In 1963, another anti-Tutsi backlash by the Hutu Govt. in Rwanda an estimated 14,000 people were killed. Rwanda now became a Hutu-dominated one party state. In excess of 70,000 people had been killed.
In response to the April killing of the two state presidents , over the next three months (April-july, '94) the hutu led military and interahamwe militia groups killed about 8,00,000 Tutsis and Hutu moderates in the Rwandan cenocide.
Between July and Aug. '94 Kagame's Tutsi-led RPF troops first entered kigali and soon there after captured therest of the country. Over 2 million Hutus then fled the country , causing the Great lakes refugee crisis. many went to eastern Zaire.

Rwanda genocide

Tuesday, April 7, 2009

Rwandan genocide

Genocide means, as in Oxford dictionary, deliberate extermination of a race by another. Rwandan genocide was the 1994 mass killing of hundreds and thousands of rwanda's Tutsis and Hutu political moderatesby Hutus under the HUTU POWER ideology. Over the period of approximately 100 days from 6 April to July, at least 5,00,000 (by another estimate 8,00,000 to 10,00,000 people were killed. Out of a population of 7.3 million ( 73,00,000 lak) people- 84 % of whom were Hutu, 15 % Tutsi and 1 % Twa - the number of victims of the genocide were 1,174,000 (11,74,000 lak)in 100 days i.e. 10,000 murdered every day or 400 every hour or 7 every minute. The other sources put the death toll to 8,00,000including 20 % Hutus. It is estimated that 3,00,000 tutsis servived the genocide. thousands of widows , many of whom were submitted to rape, are now HIV positive. There were about 4,00,000 orphansand nearly 85,000 of therm have become the heads of family.
Some signs of Genocide :
Bodies lying dead
Firing and bombing at random
Only skulls collected after the genocide, kept in the museum

Rwanda, relationship with Burundi

The situation in Rwanda was largely influenced by the incidents in Burundi.Both countries have a Hutu majority, an army in Burundi was controlled by Tutsi. After the assassination of Rwagasore, his UPRONA party was split into two factions,Hutu and tutsi. A tutsi prime minister was chosen by the monarch, but a year laterin 1963,was forced to appoint a Hutu Prime minister. In 1965, Ngendandumwe, a Hutu, the elected prime minister was assasinated by a Tutsi extremist.To avoid controversy, the Mwami appointed his personal secretary,Leopold beha, as prime and immediately, this led to a coup by the Hutus. Ultimately a military rule continued for 27 years in Burundi until the next free election in 1993. In 1988, Hutu violence against Tutsis surfaced in Burundi and in response the Tutsi army massacredapproximately 20,000 more Hutu. and thosands of Hutu exiled into Tanzania and Congo.
In 1986, Yoweri Museveni'sguerilla forces in Uganda had succeded in taking control of the country. Many exiled Rwandan Tutsi refugees had joined this rebel forces and became trained in guerrilla technique.Paul Kagame, a Tutsi and head of military intelligence in Museveni's army, founded the RPF (Rwandan Patriotic Front) to invade Rwanda from Uganda. Kagame had military trainig in USA and in 1991 he broadcasted a radio propaganda from Uganda about RPF.
Some members attached to the military dictatorship of Habyarimina Govt. responded in 1993 about the invasion of RPF and began anti-Tutsi propaganda saying that the Tutsis were trying to enslave the Hutus. However after three years of fighting the Govt. and RPF signed a final ceasefire agreement, known as Arusha accord.But neither of them were agreeable to obey the accord and fighting continued. By that time 1.5 million Hutus had fled away apprehending fresh masscres by the Tutsis on Hutus.
The situation worsened after the assassination of Melchior Ndadaye, a Hutu elected Burudian President by Burudian Tutsi dominated army. In Burundi a fierce civil war was started and tens of thousands, both Hutu and Tutsi were killed. This conflict spilled over to Rwandan border and caused caused the fragile Rwandan Arusha accords to quickly scrumble.

Monday, April 6, 2009

Rwanda, After independence

After independence : from AD 1962
Ruanda and urundi became independent in July 1962. UN wanted a single nation but both opt to exist as a separate state. The spelling of the name of Ruanda was changed to Rwanda and Ureundi changed its name to Burundi.

The first presidential election of Rwanda was won by Gregoire Kayibanda, the leader of the interim provisional Government. The name of his party was Party for Hutu Emancipation and in the spirit of that the first task they undertook a movement to kill all the "cockroaches" ( Slang name for Tutsi used by Hutus).
In Dec. 1963, several hundred of Tutsi guerrillas enter southern Rwanda from burundi.they advanced within 12 miles of the capital,Kigali before they were eliminated by the Rwandan army.this event prompted the Govt. to announce to "clear the bushes" and within days 14,000 Tutsis were massacreedin the southern province of Rwanda. Bertrand Russel termed this as "the most horrible and systematic massacre". This was what the Hutus achieved after independence in 1990s. from 1962 to 1990, in28 years there were two Hutu rulers acted as President. The second one , Habyarimina took the charge from Kayibanda by a simple coup in1973. and remained in power for 21 yrs. withwestern help. Habyarimina declared in 1986 that there would be no right of return of Tutsi refugees within Rwanda. As a result, the Tutsis , ex-servicemen in the army of Uganda, formed a nucleus and invaded against all odds put an end to the Habyarimina's rgime. But this act led to an incident called "the genocide of Rwanda" unknown to the world.