Sunday, April 5, 2009

Rwanda, freedom Struggle

The Belgian involvement in the region was far more direct than German involvement and extended its interest into education agricultural supervision, specially during two droughts and subsequent faminesin 1928-29and in 1943.These famines forced large number of of Rwandans to migrate to nearest state Congo for their safety. In 1933 ethnic identification cards isuued by Belgians also accepted the existing class system , featuring Tutsi minority upper class and lower clsses of Hutus and Tutsis commoners. Also in 1926 the Belgians abolished the the local posts of "land chiefs ", "cattle chiefs", "military chiefs" and in doing so they had taken away the lands and other facilities enjoyed by the Hutus an Tutsis commoners. In 1920s, under military threat , the Belgians occuppied the northern Hutu Mwami's landholdingsand divided into smaller chiefoms.The Belgian colonial authorities as also the Roman Catholic Church considdered the physical differences and patterns of the two ethnic groups . Moreover, they classified the Hutus, Tutsis and Twas as a separate class namely aristocratic class having more 10 cattle and introduced different educational system for each.
In the 1950s and early 1960s, a wave of Pan-africanism swept through central Africa, with leaders like Julius Nyererein Tazania and Pattrice Lumamba in the Congo which stirred the anti-colonial sentiments in this region. This was also advocated by the Catholic Christians of the Belgians and a freedom struggle was started by two groups UNAR and PARMEHUTU at the end of 1950s. The freedom struggle accompanied by ethnic trouble ultimately led to declare independence by Belgian Govt. on 1st. July 1962. Rwanda and Burundi was separated after independence.