Ancient Indian epics such as the Mahabharata mention the Kiratas,the inhabitants of Nepal in the first mellionnium BCE. The people who were probably of Tibeto-Burman ethnicity lived in Nepal 2,500 years ago. Ramayana, which refers to the era earlier than Mahabharata ,says Mithila (later known as Janakpur)was the birth place of the godessSita. the presence of sites such as the Valmikashraminicates the presence of Aryan culture in nepal at that period.
Indo-Aryan tribes entered the valley around 1500 BCE. Around 1000 BCE small kingdomsand confederationsof clans arose. Sidhartha Gautama(563-483 BCE),a prince of the Shakhys confederationrenounced his loyaltyto lead an ascetic life and came to be known as the Budha ("the one who has awakened) .
Himalayas from the top of Tibet
By 250 BCE, the region came under the influence of the Mauryas Empire of northern India, and latter became a puppet state under the Gupta Dynastyin the fourth century.
The Erid and barren Himalayan landscape
From the ;ate fifth century, rulers called the Licchavisgoverned the area, although the extent of their control over the country was uncertain.
By the late 11th. century southrn Nepal came under the influence of the Chalukya Empire of southertn India.Under the Chalukyas, Nepal's religious establishment changed as the kings patronised hinduism instead of Budhism prevailing at that time.
Terraced farming on the foothills of the Himalayas
By the early 13th. century, Arimalla was the first king of a dynasty whose rulers names ended with the suffixes Malla (wrestler). There was a period of upheaval before these kings consolidated their power.
13th. century Nepal was pillaged by the Delhi Sultanate of northern India.King Jaysthitimalla united most of the country by the late fourteenth century, but in 1482 the kingom was carved into three smaller areas, 1. Kathmandu,2. Patan, 3. Bhadgaon.