Tuesday, November 30, 2010
Monday, November 29, 2010
Marx seems to have introduced the concept nearly in diference to the early 19th century view that Asia was the source of all 'Aryan' peoples whose history is what his materialist conception of history was originally conceived with. He later outlined a wider conception of primitive communism, mainly under the influence of Lewis Henry Morgan's theory of the development of the human race as a whole. Sometimes the term 'Asiatic Society' was used to refer to all non-Western social forms that were neither primitive-communist nor slave-based , whilst at others it (or its more common synonym oriental despotism)was said to be applicable only to the cases of Japan and China.Underlying this referential variation was a conceptual variation. Sometimes, especially in their earlier work (and aberrantly, in Capital, 1867).Marx and Engels stressed the dominant role that the state played in such societies because of either its monopoly of land ownership, its control over irrigation systems, or its sheer political and military power. At other times - and this is what allowed them to broaden the range of societies to which the term was applied in most of their later work- they suggested that it was the communal nature of landholding that isolated the inhabitants of different villages from one another andso made them prey to state domination.
The subsequent status of the concept among Marxists and non-Marxists alike has varied with changes in the political climate.Between the two world wars, the idea was disavowed by Soviet-influenced Marxists, who probably saw it as an obstacle to the Soviet Unions political ambitions in and for the far east. In the cold war climate of the 1960s Karl Wittfogel disinterned the concept in hisoriental Despotism(1957), suggesting that the real reason for its unpopularity in the Soviet Union was the uncomfortable similarity between it and the reality of Stalin's Russia.
Sunday, November 28, 2010
The theory of the Asiatic Mode of Production (AMP) was devised by Karl Marxaround the early 1850s.The essence of the theories has been described as (the) suggestion.....that the Asiatic societies were held in thrall by a despotic ruling clique, residing in central cities and directly expropriating surplus from largely autarkic and generally undifferentiated village communities.
The theory continues to arouse heated discussion among contemporary Marxists and non-Marxists alike.Some have rejected the whole concept on the grounds that the socio-economic formations of pre-capitalist Asia did not differ enough from those of feudal Europe to warrant special designation.Aside from Marx, Engels was also an enthusiastic commentator on the AMP.They both focussed on the ocio-economic base of AMPsociety.
Marx's theory focuses on the organisation of labour and depends on his distinction between the following :
i) The means or forces of production, things such as land, natural sources, necessary for the production of material goods, and
ii) the relations of production, the social relationships people enter into as they acquire and use the means of production.
Thev Asiatic mode of production is a notion that has been the subject of much deliberation on the part of Marxistand non-Marxistcommentators alike..
Saturday, November 27, 2010
Friday, November 26, 2010
Thursday, November 25, 2010
1600 An estimate of India's pre-colonial economy puts the annual revenue of Emperor Akbar's treasury in 1600 at Pound 17.5 million, in contrast to the entire treasury of Great Britainin 1800, which totalled pound 16 million.The gross domestic product of Mughal India in 1600 was estimated at about 22.6 %the world economy, in comparison to Ming China's 29.2 % share.
1700 By this time, the Mughal Empire expanded to almost 1,000 million acres or 90 % of South Asia, and a uniform customsand tax administration systemwas enforced.Annual revenue reported by Em0peror Aurangazeb's exchequer exceeded Pound 100 million in 1700 (twice that of Europe then). Thus, India emerged as the world's largest economy, followed by Manchu China and Western Europe. Nawabs, Marathas and Nizams : 1725-1750 During this period, Mughals were replaced by the Nawab'sin North India, the Marathas in central India and the Nizams in south India. However, the Mughal tax administration system was left largely intact. China was the world's largest economy followed by India and France. The gross domestic product of India in 1750 was estimated at about 80 per cent that of China. Maratha Rule :1750-1775 : During this period , about two-third of the civil service in India was still dominated by Muslim officers though the Maratha empire expanded to almost 250 million acres or 34 % of Indian landscape, while the Nizam's dominion expanded to almost 125 million acres. or 17 % of of Indian landscape. The gdp of India in 1775 was estimated at about 70 % that of China. Nevertheless a devastating famine broke out in the eastern coast in early 1770s killing 5 p.c. of the national population.
Wednesday, November 24, 2010
During the Maurya Empire (c. 321-185), there were a number of important changes and developments to the Indian Economy. It was the first time in India that was unified under one ruler.With an empire in place, the trade routes throuout India became more secure thereby reducing the risk associated with the transportation of goods.The empire spent resources building roads and maintaining them throughout India. The improved infrastructure combined with increased security, greater uniformity in measurement, and increasing usage of coins as currency enhanced trade. During this time, the Arhasastra was written by the Chanakya, an adviser to Chandragupta Maurya.The economic situation in the Maurya Empireis comparable to the Roman Empire several centuries later, which both had extensive trade connections and both had organizations similar to corporation.
Tuesday, November 23, 2010
Sunday, November 21, 2010
For the next 1500 years, India produced its classical civilizations such as the Rashtrakutas, Hoysalas and western Gangas.During this period India is estimated to have had the largest economy of the ancient and medieval world between between the 1st and 15th centuries AD, controlling between one third and one fourth of the world's wealth up to the time of the Marathas, from whence it rapidly declined during European rule.
India has followed central planning for most of its Independent history, which have included extensive public ownership, regulation , tape and trade barriers.
Persians (pic. 4th from right) invaded India in 600 BC, then came Alexander (1st from left in 2nd row), Shack,Hun etc. to start Hindu Period.Hazrat Muhammad died in 632 AD. Within hundred years the Arabians became all powerful in Military strength and established a vast empire (pic. last row). Sultan Mahmood of Gazni invaded india in 1000 AD Muslim period extended upto entry of Birtish in 1857.
Monday, November 15, 2010
Indian Economy in 17th and 18th Century:
The total GDP of world in 1700 was about $ 370 billion . The GDP of Mughal empire in 1690s was $91 billion . Due to Aurangazeb's Deccan invasion Economy of India declined down to number two position to be tied with that of China.China eventually overtook India in 1829. Till 1680 India was most probably the biggest economy in the world.
Saturday, November 13, 2010
Friday, November 12, 2010
Monday, November 8, 2010
During the period of 1526, Mughal India was the second largest economy in the world . The gross domestic product of India in the 16th century was estimated at about 24.5%of the world economy, in comparison to Ming China's25 % share.
In an estimate of India's pre-colonial economy puts the annual revenue of Emperor Akbar's treasury in 1600 at 17.5 million pounds , in contrast to the entire treasury of Great Britain in 1800, which totalled 16 million pound. The gross domestic product of Mughal India in 1600 was estimated at about 22.6%the world economy, in comparison to Ming China's 29.2% share.
In 1700 the Mughal Empire expanded to almost 1,000 million acres or 90 % of South Asia, and a uniform customs and tax administration system was enforced. Annual revenue reported by the Emperor Aurangazeb's exchequer exceeded 100 million pound in 1700 . Thus, India emerged as the world's largest economy, followed by China and Western Europe.