Tuesday, November 30, 2010

List of Largest Empires, Modern Empire

1. British Empire - 33.7 million km sq (1946)
2. Russian Empire - 23.7 million km sq (1866)
3. Spanish Empire - 20.0 million km sq (1740-1790)
4. Ottoman Empire - 19.9 million km sq (1595)
5. Qing Empire, China - 14.7 million km sq (1790)
6. French Colonial Expansion - 12.3 million km sq (1938)
7. Portuguese Empire - 10.4 million km sq (1815)

List of largest Empire, Medieval Period

1.Mongol Empire - 33.0 million km sq. (1270 AD)
2. Yuan Dynasty - 14.0 million km sq (1310 AD)
3. Umayyad Caliphate - 13.0 million km sq ( 720 or 750 AD)         xxxxxxxxxxxx
15. Pala Empire, India - 4.0 million km sq (850 AD)                        xxxxxxxxxxx

21. Chola Dynasty, India - 3,6 million km sq (1050 AD) 

Monday, November 29, 2010

List of Largest Empires, Ancient Period

Ancient Empire :

1. Achaemenid Empire at its Greatest extent-8.0 million km sq. (480 BC)

2. Han Empoire, China - 6.5 million km sq. (AD 100) 
3. Roman Empire - 6.5 million km sq (AD 117) 
4. Macedonian Empire - 5.2 million sq. (323 BC)
5. Maurya Empire - 5.0 million kmsq. (250 BC)

Asiatic mode of Production, Marx (contd-1)

Asiatic mode of production of all Karl Marx's conceptions of the modes of production which he considered to have provided the base for the various forms of society known of human history, this was perhaps the least developed and is certainly the one that has given rise to the most controversy.
Marx seems to have introduced the concept nearly in diference to the early 19th century view that Asia was the source of all 'Aryan' peoples whose history is what his materialist conception of history was originally conceived with. He later outlined a wider conception of primitive communism, mainly under the influence of Lewis Henry Morgan's theory of the development of the human race as a whole. Sometimes the term 'Asiatic Society' was used to refer to all non-Western social forms that were neither primitive-communist nor slave-based , whilst at others it (or its more common synonym oriental despotism)was said to be applicable only to the cases of Japan and China.Underlying this referential variation was a conceptual variation. Sometimes, especially in their earlier work (and aberrantly, in Capital, 1867).Marx and Engels stressed the dominant role that the state played in such societies because of either its monopoly of land ownership, its control over irrigation systems, or its sheer political and military power. At other times - and this is what allowed them to broaden the range of societies to which the term was applied in most of their later work- they suggested that it was the communal nature of landholding that isolated the inhabitants of different villages from one another andso made them prey to state domination.
The subsequent status of the concept among Marxists and non-Marxists alike has varied with changes in the political climate.Between the two world wars, the idea was disavowed by Soviet-influenced Marxists, who probably saw it as an obstacle to the Soviet Unions political ambitions in and for the far east. In the cold war climate of the 1960s Karl Wittfogel disinterned the concept in hisoriental Despotism(1957), suggesting that the real reason for its unpopularity in the Soviet Union was the uncomfortable similarity between it and the reality of Stalin's Russia.        

Sunday, November 28, 2010

Asiatic mode of production, Marx

The theory of the Asiatic Mode of Production (AMP) was devised by Karl Marxaround the early 1850s.The essence of the theories has been described as (the) suggestion.....that the Asiatic societies were held in thrall by a despotic ruling clique, residing in central cities and directly expropriating surplus from largely autarkic and generally undifferentiated village communities.

The theory continues to arouse heated discussion among contemporary Marxists and non-Marxists alike.Some have rejected the whole concept on the grounds that the socio-economic formations of pre-capitalist Asia did not differ enough from those of feudal Europe to warrant special designation.Aside from Marx, Engels was also an enthusiastic commentator on the AMP.They both focussed on the ocio-economic base of AMPsociety.
Marx's theory focuses on the organisation of labour and depends on his distinction between the following :
i) The means or forces of production, things such as land, natural sources, necessary for the production of material goods, and
ii) the relations of production, the social relationships people enter into as they acquire and use the means of production.
Thev Asiatic mode of production is a notion that has been the subject of much deliberation on the part of Marxistand non-Marxistcommentators alike..    

Friday, November 26, 2010

Golden Age of India (300-600 AD)

After the downfall of Maurya Dynasty, India,specially north India, was divided in small kingdoms. But so,me dynasties in south continued to rule  for centuries but they could not unite India as Mauryas had done.It was the Gupta dynasty that emerged as a major power in the early years of fourth century and united India  into a nation. Gupta Empire's time is also cosidered to be the golden age of India as India was at its peak in the fields of science, mathematics, astronomy, religion, Indian Philosophy and literature during their reign. Kalidas and Aryabhatta are the two famous figures of that time.It was Aryabhatta who had first claimed that earth revolves around the sun. He also gave the concept of zeroto the world.He had contributed  a lot to Mathemeticsalso.He has been discovered that he knew about the concept of pie (22/7) also.Kalidas was a playwright who had written  'Shakuntala.'.Indian literature of that age has influenced the Greek literature a lot.

Thursday, November 25, 2010

Economic History of Pre-British India (contd-4)

Mughal Period-1526 : During this period , Mughal India was tje second largest economy in the world. The gross domestic product of India in the 16th century was estimated at about 24.5% of the world economy, in comparison to Ming China's 25% share.
1600   An estimate of India's pre-colonial economy puts the annual  revenue of Emperor Akbar's treasury in 1600 at Pound 17.5 million, in contrast to the entire treasury of Great Britainin 1800, which totalled pound 16 million.The gross domestic product of Mughal India in 1600 was estimated at about 22.6 %the world economy, in comparison to Ming China's 29.2 % share.
1700   By this time, the Mughal Empire expanded to almost 1,000 million acres or 90 % of South Asia, and a uniform customsand tax administration systemwas enforced.Annual revenue reported by Em0peror Aurangazeb's exchequer exceeded Pound 100 million in 1700 (twice that of Europe then). Thus, India emerged as the world's largest economy, followed by Manchu China and Western Europe.  Nawabs, Marathas and Nizams :   1725-1750 During this period, Mughals were replaced by the Nawab'sin North India, the Marathas in central India and the Nizams in south India. However, the Mughal tax administration system was left largely intact. China was the world's largest economy followed by India and France. The gross domestic product of India in 1750 was estimated at about 80 per cent that of China. Maratha Rule :1750-1775 : During this period , about two-third of the civil service in India was still dominated by Muslim officers though the Maratha empire expanded to almost 250 million acres or 34 % of Indian landscape, while the Nizam's dominion expanded to almost 125 million acres. or 17 % of of Indian landscape. The gdp of India in 1775 was estimated at about 70 % that of China. Nevertheless a devastating famine broke out in the eastern coast in early 1770s killing 5 p.c. of the national population.

Wednesday, November 24, 2010

Economic History of Pre-British India (contd-3)

During the Maurya Empire  (c. 321-185), there were a number of important changes and developments to the Indian Economy. It was the first time in India  that was unified under one ruler.With an empire in place, the trade routes throuout India became more secure thereby reducing the risk associated with the transportation of goods.The empire spent resources building roads and maintaining them throughout India. The improved infrastructure combined with increased security, greater uniformity in measurement, and increasing usage of coins as currency enhanced trade. During this time, the Arhasastra was written by the Chanakya, an adviser to Chandragupta Maurya.The economic situation in the Maurya Empireis comparable to the Roman Empire several centuries later, which both had extensive trade connections and both had organizations similar to corporation. 

Tuesday, November 23, 2010

Economic History of Pre-British India (contd-2)

Angus Maddison (1926-2010) was a British economist and Emeritus Professor at the faculty of Economics at the University of Groningen. In 1978, Maddison was appointed historical professor at the University of Groningen. He was a pioneer in the field of the construction of national accounts, where a countries accounts are calculated back in periods several of several decades all the way to the year 1.To this end he combined modern research techniques with his own extensive knowledgde of economic history and in particular countries' performances in the field of GDP per capita.His work resulted in a deep new understanding of the reasons why some countries have become rich whereas others have remained poor. In this vital field , Maddison is regarded as the world's most prominent scholar.

Economic History of Pre-British India (contd-1)

Revenue and Coinage :Around the 5th century BC Punch marked silver ingots  in circulation and the first metallic coins were minted around the 6th cecentury BC by the Mahajanapadas of the Gangetic plains,  the earliest traces of coinage in India.While India's many kingdoms and rulers issued coins, barter was still widely prevalent . Villages paid a portion of their agricultural produce as revenue while its craftsmen received a stipend out of the crops at harvest time for their services. Each village, as an economic unit, was mostly self-sufficient.  
Exports :Surplus of Indian manufactures, like the muslin of Dacca,Calicos of Bengal, Shawls of Kashmir, steel and iron works, silk, and other textiles and handicrafts, agricultural products like pepper, cinnamon, opium, and indigo were exported to Europe, the Middle East and South-East Asia in return for gold and silver.         GDP estimate : According to economic historian Angus Maddison in his book The World Economy: A millinnial Perspective , India had the world's largest economy from the first to 11th century, and in the 18th century, with a 32.9% share of world's GDP in the 1st century to 28.9% in 1000AD, and in 1700 AD with 24.4%. 

Sunday, November 21, 2010

Economic History of Pre-British India

The known Economic history of India begins with the Indus Valley Civilization. The Indus Civilization's economy appears to have depended significantly on trade, which was facilitated by advances in transport. Around 600 BC, the Mahajanapadas minted punch-marked silver coins.Thee period was marked by   intensive trade activity and urban development. By  300 BC the Maurya Empire united most of the Indian sub-continent. The political unity and military security allowed for a common economic system and enhanced trade and commerce, with increased agricultural productivity.
For the next 1500 years, India produced its classical civilizations  such as the Rashtrakutas, Hoysalas and western Gangas.During this period India is estimated to have had the largest economy of the ancient and medieval world between between the 1st and 15th centuries AD, controlling between one third and one fourth of the world's wealth up to the time of the Marathas, from whence it rapidly declined during European rule.
India has followed central planning for most of its Independent history, which have included extensive public ownership, regulation , tape and trade barriers.

India at a glance since two thousand years back

Monday, November 15, 2010

World's Highest GDP in Mughal time (1690)

Kaal-Chiron said in his blog on Aug 06,2009," The Deccan conquest of Aurangazeb can be considered as one of the longest and largest conquest in the history of mankind. About one and half million men and almost equal number of beasts toiling away far from their homes for 27 years just for the political ambition of one emperor , sees to be too huge to be true. Mughal army ravaged deccan and emerged defeated in the end. Their prime aim, which was to subdue Marathas, proved to be futile .Marathas were already conquering central India, when Mughals were busy conquering Deccan, within 8 years of Aurangazeb's death Marathas entered Delhi as part of allied forces and within 30 years of his death they had conquered Delhi on their own and ruling almost everything from Punjab to Tamil Nadu and Sindh to Bengal.

Indian Economy in 17th and 18th Century: 
The total GDP of world in 1700 was about $ 370 billion . The GDP of Mughal empire in 1690s was $91 billion . Due to Aurangazeb's Deccan invasion Economy of India declined down to number two position to be tied with that of China.China eventually overtook India in 1829. Till 1680 India was most probably the biggest economy in the world. 

Friday, November 12, 2010

Mughal Emperors

Babur (1526-1530)

Humayun (1530-39, 1555-56)

Akbar (1556-1605)
Jahangir (1605-27)

Shah Jahan( 1627-58)

Aurangazeb (1658-1708)

Bahadur Shah II (1837-1858)

Wednesday, November 10, 2010

Monday, November 8, 2010

Economy in Mughal Empire (contd-1)

Once the economy started growing, many trade centers developed which soon grew into prosperous cities. Many Indian cities of that time, according to travelling foreigners, were better than those Asia and Europe. Communications and transport facilities had also improved during the time of the Mughals and Sher Shah. There were several metalled highways reaching various places of the empire.River transport was also important, especially those which were navigable throughout the yea. Though agriculture was an important part of the economy, the crops and techniques remaining unchanged and irrigation facilities such as canals, and water reservoirs being insufficient  economy sometimes remained stagnant due to inclement weather leading to famines.  
During the period of 1526, Mughal India was the second largest economy in the world . The gross domestic product of India in the 16th century was estimated at about 24.5%of the world economy, in comparison to Ming China's25 % share.
In  an estimate of India's pre-colonial economy puts the annual revenue of Emperor Akbar's treasury in 1600 at 17.5 million pounds , in contrast to the entire treasury of Great Britain in 1800, which totalled 16 million pound. The gross domestic product of Mughal India in 1600 was estimated at about 22.6%the world economy, in comparison to Ming China's 29.2% share.
In 1700 the Mughal Empire expanded to almost 1,000 million acres or 90 % of South Asia, and a uniform customs and tax administration system was enforced. Annual revenue reported by the Emperor Aurangazeb's exchequer exceeded 100 million pound in 1700 . Thus, India emerged as the world's largest economy, followed by China and Western Europe.