Saturday, February 28, 2009

Malawi (continued)

Human existence was perceived about 50,000 to 60,000 years ago in the vicinity of the Lake Malawi. Human remains were visible at about 8,000 BC similar to the peoples living in the Horn of Africa. at another site 1500 BC the remains possessed features resembling Negro and Bushman people.
Although the Portuguese reached the area in the 16th. century, the first significant western contact was the arrival of David Livingstone along the shore of lake Malawi in 1859. Subsequently, Scotish Presbyterian Churches established missions in Malawi. One of the objective was to end the slave trade to the Persian Gulfthat continued to the end of 19th century. In 1878, a number of traders, mostly from Glasgow, formed the African Lake Company to supply goods and servicesto the missiom=naries.Other missionaries, traders , hunters followed simultaneously.
In 1883, a consul of the British Government was accredited to the "Kings and Chiefs of Central Africa," and in 1891, the British established the Nyasaland Protectorate .( Nyasa is the Chichewa word for "lake").

A child in Malawi

The child does not know that he is poor.
Missionary work in Malawi

Malawi, a poorest country

In per capita income list of all the countries of the world, atlas method (est. 2003, CIA fact book)rank of Malawi was 200th. of 208 countries. Gnp per capita beeing 170. Position was better than Ethiopia-90, Congo,Dem.Rep.- 100, Burundi-100,, Liberia-130, Guinea Bissau-140, Sierra Leone-150.

In the list of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita, the position of Malawi in,


gdp,(nominal) per capita



In the list of GDP (PPP)per capita


http:// shows

country ...................................gdp per capita

1. Malawi....................................$600



4.Solomon Islands.....................$600

5. Dem.rep. of Congo.................$700


7.East Timor..............................$800




(source ; CIA world factbook)

Map of Malawi, Africa

Malawi is sitauted at the south-east of Africa

of whichTanzania is on the north, Mozambique
is on the south and east and Zambia is on the west.


Lake Malawi:

Map of Malawi:

Thursday, February 26, 2009

Cape verde- People and Culture

The status to which Cape Verde was raised was due to the identity of its people and culture. The Cape verdeans are a mix of african and European cultures, which havebeen influenced by its weather and environment in which they live through the centuries.
more than half a million of cape verdean live abroad- between 1820 and 1920 around 40,000 cape Verdeans emigrated to america(many as crew0,to escape from famine and drought. today there are more than 4,00,000 cape Verdeans living in the United States (Sp. in New England),
The origins of the Cape Verdeans are linked to maritimetrade and slavery - a mixture of black africans - descendents of slaves and trades who came from the west coast-and white european-mostly descendentsof Italianmeerchants and portuguesesettlers and colonists. Cape Verdeans range from the very dark-skinned to the very fair- on Fogo, there is evena community of farmers who trace their ancestors to a French Duke.
Tourism :
Cape Verde has few natural resources an suffers from scanty rainfall and limited fresh water. Only 4 of the 10 main islands (Santiago, Santo Antao, fogo, and Brava) normally support agricultural production, and ovetr 90 % of all food consumed in cape Verde is imported . Mineral resources include salt, pozzolana ( a volcanic rock used in cement production), and limestone.
The economy of Cape verde is service oriented, with commerce,trnsport, and public services accounting for more than 70 5 of GDP . Although nearly 70 % 0f the ppopulation lives in rural areas, agriculture and fishing contribute only 9 % of GDP. Expatriate cape Verdeans contribute an amount estimated at about 20 % of GDP to the domestic economy through remittances. From 1994 to 2000 $407 million in foreign investments were made or planned , of which 58 % were in tourism, 17 % in industry, 4 5 in infrustructure, and 21 % in fisheries and services.
Tourism to Cape Verde has been increasing over the last decade, with considerable numbers of tourists from Italy and France. with the intrduction of direct flights from the UK in Nov. 2006, the number of british visiting the islands is likely to increase significantly.the key attractions of cape Verde are its proximity to Europe , as it can be reached in less than 6 hrs. from the UK -and year round sunshine
Moreover, as it is in a development stage lower prices, in relation to Spain and Portugal, also
attract the tourists.

Average temp. at sea side

Average Temp. Chart 0 degree
Average sunrise chart
Sun rising , cape verde
Sun just above the horizon, cape Verde
Sunrise in cloud, Cape Verde
Sun rise, Cape Verde
Sun rise, busy hrs., Cape Verde
Sunset, cape Verde

Cape Verde, Continued

Cape Verde is sai to be a developing country. Its gnp (nominal) per capita in three measurement in $ IMF (est.2007)/WB (est.2007)/CIA (est. 2008) is as follows :
Measure of HDI (EST. 2007)
.736, rank-102 nd.
The Cape Verde is a stable democracy with its constitutionadoptedin 1980 and revised in 1992,1995, and 1999. It follows a policy of non-alignment and seeks co-operative relations with all friendly states like Angola, Brazil,China, Cuba, France ,germany, Portugal, Spain, Senegal, Russia and theUS. It has a special partnership status with EU and 153 rd. member of WTO.
There are 10 islands and 5 islets in the Cape Verde archipelago, three of the islands are uninhabited. the islands of Cape Verde are volcanic in origin.

Economy ;
The economy of Cape Verde is mainly service oriented with a small industry in ship repair. It has
a trading relation with US, UK, and others. It is a very good tourist spot with beautiful scenery.

Wednesday, February 25, 2009

Cape Verde,History

History :
Portuguese came to Santiago and that was the first permanent European settlement. They named the Island Cabo Verde which was subsequently known in English as Cape Verde. It was an uninhabited island. The archipelago prospered during 16th. century as a slave trade center. After a French attack in 1712, the city declined its importance relative to Praia, which became the capital of Cape Verde in 1770. For the ideal location of the islands, it became a center for re-supplying ships for those going to America (north and south) from Europe. With the decline in the sslave trade in 19th. century the Portugal changed the status of Cape Verde and made its status a overseas province from a colony in 1951, in an attempt to blunt the growing nationalism. However, a revolutionary party, in the name of African party for Independence of guinea Bissau and cape Verde (PAIGC), was formed in 1956 under the leadership of Amilcar Cabral, a Cape Verdean, born in Guinea Bissau. The freedom fighters were trained by Cuba, Russia, China to fight in the guerrila technique. After fierce fighting independence was granted to Guinea Bissau in 1974 and to Cape Verde in 1975. Due to a coup in Guinea Bissau in 1980 the relation between Guinea Bissau and Cape Vede was strained and they changed the name of their Party as African Party for Independence of Cape Verde (PAICV).
After the rule of 16 years by a Marxist party (one party rule) an election was held for a multi- party democracy due to the presure from inside and outside the country in 1991. Abondoning the Marxist Party and its economic system, a party known as Movement for democracy (MPD) won a landslide victory and came to power. But in the election held in 2006, The PAICV won a majority of the 72 seats in the National Assembly, holding 41 seats against 29 by MPD and 2 seats were won by another two parties, one each.

Tuesday, February 24, 2009

Cape Verde

Cape Verde was not so poor as that of Guines Bissau though both of them were colonies of Portugal. In the list of gnp per capita (atlas) method (est. 2003) the rank of Cape Verde was 124 and its gnp per capita was 1,490 $, where as that of Guinea Bissau was 202 and its gnp per capita was140 i.e. 10 times less than CapeVerde. Located off the coast of Senegal, 450 kms from the west coast of Africa,the Cape Verde islands acieved political indepence from Portugal in 1975 ( Guinea Bissau got Independence in 1974) .The archipelago was uninhabited prior to the 1460s.
There is now a single ethnolinguistic groupdescended fromboth Africans and Europeanswhose 90 % cosider them as catholics.
After achieving independence from Portugal in 1975, Cape verde was governed for 16 years under Marxist ,one party rule by the African Party for Independenceof Guinea Bissau and Cape Verde( PAIGC), now known as African Party for independence of Cape Verde (PAICV). In 1991, in the country's first democratic elections the Marxist political and economic system was replaced by the party , Movement for Democracy (MPD) who won a landslide victory. This party held administration for two successive terms.
Fishermen drag a small boat up the
shore in Sao Pedro Bay,Cape Verde,
in Sep. 8, 2000.

Monday, February 23, 2009

guinea Bissau, Picture from internet

Bissau, Capital of Guinea Bissau

Naked children, common Scenery

Govt. Quarter

Presidential palace

Guinea Bissau, Economy

The country is made up of 30 islandsand the main land. With 1.5 million population Guinea Bissau is one of the smallest country in Africa, half the population of which lives below the poverty line.Some of the reasons of its poverty:
1. One in every five children dies before reaching the age of five.
World Malaria Day: on April 25,aims to highlight a disease which kills over a million people world wide each year.

2. 30 % of children suffer from stunted growth due to poor nutrition,
3. 60 % of children do not attend primary school,
4. Only half the rural population have access to adequate drinking water.
A vaccination campaign of Guinea Bissau protected thousands of young children from dying as a result of preventable diseases.
As per national average per capita income using Atlas metho the rank of guinea Bissau is 5th. from bottom and is 140$ (est. 2003)
Rank and estimate as per GDP (PPP) per capita, in three measurement, IMF (est. 2007),WB (est. 2007),CIA (est.2008) is
Rank/est, rank/est, rank/est.
175/484, 164/477, 190/600 (2007 est.)
Rank/est, rank/est,rank/est. as per GDP (nominal) per capita

Guinea Bissau, Civil War

The United States recognized the new nationon 10 Sept., 1974 and Luis Cabral, half-brother of Amilcar Cabral became the Presidentof Guinea Bissau. In late 1980, the Govt. was overthown in a relatively bloodless coup led by Prime Minister and former armed forces commander Joao Bernardo "nino" Vieira. From Nov. 1980 to may 1984, power was held by a provisional govt. responsible to a revolutionary council headed by Presient Joao Bernardo Vieira. In 1984, the council was dissolved and national popular assembly was reconstituted. The single party assembly approved a new constitution , elected president Vieir to a new 5-year term,and elected a council of state. A number of coup attempts through the 1980s and early 1990sfailed to unseat him and in 1994 he wa elected the president in the country's first free elections. A military coup and a civil war in 1998 led to Vieira's ouster in 1999. Opposition leader Kumba Yala took office following tansparent presidential elections in 2000 but he was ousted in a bloodless coup in Sept. 2003, and Henrich Rosa was sworn in. Guinea Bissau held legislative elections under international observers, acceptibly ,free and fair. on May 9, 2004, Carlos Gomes Junior became prime minister.

Sunday, February 22, 2009

Guinea Bissau, War of Indepence (continued)

There was always a resistance by the local people against the Portuguese but organised effort for struggle for indepenence was started after the formation of the African party for the independence of Guinea and Cape Verde (PAIGC) by the two leaders Amilcar Cabral and Rafael Barbosa in 1956. For the first few years attempt was made for negotiation with the Portuguese for Independence. Then some sporadic incidents of killing were held till PAIGC took the leadership of conducting the freedom struggle. The first major action was taken was a strike by dock workers in Bissau on Aug., 3,1959. The colonial police by their drastic action stopped the strike which caused 50 lives . The incident was known as Pijiguiti Massacre which raised a

huge popular support.

By 1960, the headquarters of PAIGC was shifted from Bissau to Conakry in neighbouring Guinea in order to prepare for an armed struggle In April 1961, PAIGC organised a conference of the of the Portuguese Colonies in Morocco which attended by the leaders of Mozambique, Angola, Sao tome and principe to organise and cooperate the different national liberation movement. The PAIGC undertook to organise sabotages until military trength became sufficient.

Soon after these attacks the communist nations of the world , such as USSR,Cuba, China arranged training camps for the guerrillass of the PAIGC to launch a mssive offensive. the first party congress of PAIGC took place in Cassaca in Feb. 1962, in which both the political and military arms of the PAIGC were assessed and reorganised to form a regular army (The peoples Army) and and to supplement them by the guerilla forces (The Peoples Guerillas).

Como Island was the site of a major battle between PAIGC and Portuguese forces, in which PAIGC took control of the island and resisted fiercely the counter ttacks by the Portuguese, including air strikes by FAP (Portuguese air Force) f-86 sabres.

After fierce fighting the PAIGC , by 1967, ha carried out 147 attacks on Portuguese camps and effectively controlled2/3 of Portuguese Guinea. in 1970, the FAP began to use similar weapons as used by USA against Vietnam.napam and Defoliants were also used. But with more help from Cuba and USSR, PAIGC could resist the attacks and took fresh offensives.

Portugal Capital, Lisbon

In Sept. 1973 a crushing blow was deit by the Portuguese and Amilcar Cabral was assassinated. But ultimately the Govt. of Lisbon, the capital of Portugal, put to a bankruptcy and in 1974 pollowing a coup d'etat the Portuguese Govt. began to negotiate for settlement.on 10 sept., 1974 independence was granted. Luis Cabral, the brother of Amilcar, became the first president.

!,875 Portuguese soldiers (out of 35,000) and some 6,000 (out of 10,000) of PAIGC were killed at the end of 11 years of war.

Guinea Bissau, war of Indepenence

Soldiers of PAIGC raises flag of Independence

of Guinea Bissau in 1974

Portugal claimed Guinea Bissau and Cape Verde since 1446 and made slave market there during 18th. century. They, however, could not capture the interior prior to 19th. century when the slave trade declined. In 1765 they established a military camp and a slave trading center.

Before 1st. World War, portuguese forces with some assistance from the Muslim population, subdued the animist tribes and eventually established the territory's borders. The interior of Portuguese Guinea was brought under control after more than 30 years of fighting; final subjugation of the island of Bijagos di not occur until 1936.The administrative control took place when the capital was shifted from Bolama to Bissau in 1941, and in 1952, by constitutional amenment, the the colony of Portuguese Guinea became an overseas province of Portugal.

Guinea Bissau war of independence
part of Portuguese colonial war
A PAIGC soldier with AK-47 rifle
Date: Jan., 23, 1963-1974
Location: Guinea bissau, Guinea
Result: Independence of Guinea BissauCasualities and losses: 15,000 dead.
A village in guinea Bissau

Friday, February 20, 2009

Guinea Bissau (Continued)

Officially known as Republic of Guinea Bissau, is a country in western Africa, one of the smallest country of the continent. Senegal is in the north and Guinea is on its east and south. Atlantic ocean is situated in the west. The name of its capital is Bissau.
Guinea Bissau was once a part of the kingdom of gabu, a part of the Mali Empire. In the 15th. century Portuguese came to this region and with the help of the local people they established a slave market. They used the market through the river Guinea and the islands of Cape Verde.

Portugal claimed the Portuguese Guinea in 1446, few trading posts were established before 1600. In 1630, a "captaincy-general" of Portguese guinea was established to administer the territory. They exported large number of Africans to the t the western hemisphere via the Cape Verde Islands. Cacheu became one of the major slave centers and a small military and slave trading center in 1765, grew to become the major commercial center.The local African rulers in Guinea , who prosper greatly from the slave trade did not allow the Europeans to enter inland other than the coastal areas. For that reason the Portuguese culd not enter before eighteenth century into the region. Portuguese lost a part of Guinea to the French West Africa including the commercial interest. A dispute with Great Britain over the Bolama island was settled in Portugalwith the involvement of US President Ulysses Grant.

Thursday, February 19, 2009

Map of guinea Bissau

Guinea Bissau is
Situated in the west of Africa, shown in the box.

Map of Guinea Bissau
In the north Senegal, in the east and south
guinea and in the west Atlantic Ocean.

Capital City of Guinea bissau:

Wednesday, February 18, 2009

Guinea Bissau

Poor country, rich people

Despite being one of the poorest
country of the world, Guinea
Bissau is a beautiful country
with wonderful people and
charming sceneries. Ravaged
by protracted struggles for
Independence, civil conflict
and guerrilla warfare,
Guinea Bissau is slowly
improving from its poor
wretched condition with
unspoilt scenery and plenty
of wild life .Though poor
they are not beggars to
travellors who come to
visit their country.
The Rio Grande de Buba,
80 kms from sea that
enter like river and it's
National Park will offer
plenty of enjoyment and
Rio Grande de Buba

Tuesday, February 17, 2009

Iron ladies of Liberia, 2006 onwards

After fourteen years of civil war, on January 16, 2006,
Ellen Johnson Sirleaf was elected female head of state
in Africa, in a hotly contested eliction. She was the
first woman candidate in Africa to have this honour.
Since taking office she had appointed other qualified
women to leadership positionin all areas of
Government, including the Police Chief and
ministers of Justice, Commerce and Finance.
For her capability to introduce democracy in a
riot torn state she was termed as Iron Ladies of Liberia.
During her time , in February 2008, President Bush
visited Liberia to extend his support through the
US Agency for Inauguration to increase community
infrastructure projects, such as expaning access to a
buildings , training Liberians in vocational skills,
promoting business development, and improving
standard of living.
The liberian economy was mainly based on the
mining of iron ore and on the export of rubber
prior to the civil war. In the 1970's and 1980's,
iron mining accounted for more than half of
liberia's export earnings but economic growth
rate slowed down because of a decline in the
demand of iron orein the world market.
Liberian diamon exports had resumed.
"Curse" of Liberia's resources;
A few miles outside Monrovia, Capital of
Liberia, the humid scrublan gave way to
seemingly endless vistas of tall , geometrically
spaced rubber trees.This was one of the
largest plantations in the world.lokking carefully
through the forest cover one used to find miners
panning gold and diamons. soon enough, one used
to find across a railway that a mountain of iron-ore
in the north of the country which was rehabilitated
with 1bn.$investment.
It is well said that " the peace however remains fragile,
threatened, by the unresolved issue of who will exploit
and who will benefit from Liberia's natural resources.

Monday, February 16, 2009

Liberia, Civil War (1st.1989-1996, 2nd.1997-2003)

First Liberian Civil War (1989-1996)

Despite Doe's poor human rights record and questionable democratic credentials, he retained close relations with the President Ronald Reagan and enjoyed considerable US financial support.

On Dec. 24, 1989, a small band of rebels led by Doe's former chief, Charles Taylor,invaded Liberian Patriotic front Rebels rapidly and gained the support of many Liberians. They reached the outskirts of Monrovia. From 1989 to 1996 , one of Africa's bloodiest civil wars ensued, claiming the lives of more than 2,00,00 Lliberians and neighbouring countries. The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) intervened in 1990 and succeeded Monrovia.A member of Taylor's National Patriotic Front of liberia (NPFL) Yormie Johnson formed the INPFL. Johnson's forces captured and killed Doe on Sept. 9, 1990. Both of NPFL and INPFL continued siege on Monrovia.
After many ups and downs an election was held in July, 1997 which was won by Taylor by 75 % of votes and took the office in the 2nd Aug.,1997. Bloodshed in Liberia did not stop. For the next 6 years , Taylor Govt. could not improve the lives of liberians and unemployment , illiteracy continued resulting a second civil war in Aug. 2003.
Under intense presure from US president taylor resigned and departed. The UN took over the security of Liberia. In Oct. 2005,

Charge of liberia taken over by Charles Guude Bryant,in oct.2003.

Ellen Johnsom Sirleaf elected Presidentin 2005

presidential and legislative elections were held and in the history of Liberia , Ellen Johnson Sirleaf defeated international soccer star George Weah by 59.4 % of votes and became the President.
The Govt. of Liberia made positive recovery.

View of a lake in Bomi county, Liberia