Wednesday, February 11, 2009

Liberia (1821-1847)

Colonisation(1821 - 1847)
From around 1800, ideas and plans were floating inUS for establishing a colony in Africa with freed African - American slaves. Between 1821 and 1847, a combination of purchase and conquest, American societies developed the colony Liberia which in 1847 they declared it as independent nation.

Areas covered by the Emancipation Proclamation marked red and not covered marked blue

In eighteenth, before American Revolution, they could not think of freed Africans for their superiority complexes but after world wide awakeness they were forced to consider the abolition of slave trade and freed African- American societies. In 1800 and 1802 slave rebellions occurred ( Gabriel Rebellion) in Virginia,which were brutally supprssed. The number of freed blacks and slaves in America was gradually increasing at the end of the eighteenth century. In1790, there were 59,467 free blacks and out of a total US population of almost 4 million ( 4o,00,000) of which blacks were 8,00,000 i.e. one fifth. In 1800, there were 108,378 free blacks in a population of 7.2 million. These factors influenced the idea of forming a colony in Africa with freed freed Africans. It may be mentioned here that in 1787, Britain had started to settle "black poor", from London who helped them during American Revolution, in the colony Freetown in Sierra Leone.

From January1820, the ACS (American colonising Society) sentships from New York to west Africa carrying 88 free blackemigrants an three white ACSagentson board,intening to seek an appropriate spot of land to ground a settlement. After several attempts and hardships, ACS representatives in Dec. 1821 succeded to buy Cape Mesurado, a 36-milelong stripof land near Monroviafrom an indegenousruler king Peter. Until 1835, five more colonies were started by American societies oyher than the ACS , and one by the US Govt. along the coast , sometimes by use of force,in 1824 named Liberia with capital Monrovia in1847 Roberts proclaimed the colony the free and indepenent republic of Liberia. A constitution was drawn upalong the lines uf the US., denying voting rights to indegenous Liberians.

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