Friday, July 31, 2009
6.The excessive rainfall in 1770 did not relieve the people from the sufferings of drought of the year before ; on the contrary, it caused overflowing of rivers and damaged the standing crops.
Not only in 1770, but during 1783- 1886, famines visited British India several times.
The famine of 1886 was seen in part of Bengal along with Orissa. Real wages of agricultural workers were declined. An enquiry commission was announced to investigate the reasons.
The famine of 1896-1898 affected Bengal along with other provinces.A famine commission headed by Sri J.B.Lyall, was formed. The commission observed that the wages of agricultural labourers had not increased for the last twenty years in proportion to the rise in prices of the daily necessities.
groups to establish entitlement over food." In a free market economy access to food is subject to direct and indirect entitlements.
Thursday, July 30, 2009
Bengal famine of 1770 :
Bengal. It was estimated to have caused the death of about 15 million people.The famine was spread in Bangladesh, West Bengal,Assam,Bihar, Orissa and Jharkhand.It was originally a province of Mughal Empire, Known as Bengal from the 16th century and was ruled by a Nawab or Governie. In the 17th century Mughal Emperer Akbar had granted the town of Calcutta to British East India Company for trade.
Wednesday, July 29, 2009
Members of the Chittagong Branch of the Jugantar ;
The other members of the branch selected for the armed uprisings were, Leader-Masterda Surya Sen, Members included : Ganesh Ghosh, Loknath Baul, Tarakeshwar Dastidar, Nirmal Sen, Ambika Chakrabarty, Naresh Roy, Sasanka Dutta, Ardhendu Dastidar, Harigopal Baul, Ananta Sing, Jiban Ghosal, Anand Gupta, Pritilata Waddedar and Kalpana Dutta. Also among them were a 14 year old boy Subodh Roy who was alive till 27 Aug. 2006 as he was released from Andaman Jail in 1940.
Surya Sen devised the strategy of capturing the two main armouries in Chttagong and then destroying the Telegraph and Telephone office, followed by assissination of members of the "European Club", the majority of whom were government or military officers involved in maitaining British Raj in India. Firearms retailers also to be raided and rail and communication lines disrupted.
History, Amnesia and Public memory:
Help was taken to write the incident from the Article written by Sri Sachidananda Mohanty with his inerview with the only living , at the time of his interview, a member of the revolutionary activities, Sri Binode Behari Choydhury.
On 18th April, 1930;
On the date specified at 10 o'clockon April 18, 1930.as per plan , the armoury of the plice wascaptured by a group of revolutionaries led by Ganesh Ghosh and another group of ten led by Loknath Baul took over the Auxilary force Armoury. Unfortunately they could not locate the store for ammunation. They also succeeded to dislocate the Telegraph and Telephone facilities. The action was undertaken by 65 revolutionries in the name of Indian Republican Army, Chittagong Branch.
Preetilata,who led the group of Pahartali European Club
They proclaimed a provisional revolutionary Government, unfurled the national flag and Surya Sen made the following declaration;
"The great task of revolution of India had fallen on the Indian Republican Army. We in Chittagong had the honour to achieve the patriotic task of of revolution for fufilling the aspiration and urge of our nation."
Having made the proclamation the group retreated and got some snacks. Later, they fought a pitched battle in the surrounding hills of Jalalabad against a contingent of the Eastern Frontier Rifles under the command of Lt. Col. Dallas Smith. They lost several men and flicted heavy casualities on the soldiers pursuing them. Some of the revulotionaries like Ananta Sing escaped to Calcutta. Others the largest group , remained underground and fought a guerilla war for three years . several encounters took place including at Dhalghat in June, 1932. Preetilata and her group attacked the European club at Pahartali. Wounded, she took potassium cyanide and embraced martyrdom in 1932.
Tuesday, July 28, 2009
Masterda Surya Sen : Surya Sen, popularly known as Masterda, as he was a teacher in Chittagong, was born on 22nd March,1894, in the village Noapara of Chittagong District (now in Bangladesh) in a lower middle class family. After graduation he tarted his careeas a teacher in Chittagong. His father's name was Ramaniranjan was also teacher by profession. Surya sen was influenced by one of his teacher while he was a student of Intermediate class in the Chittagong college into revolutionary ideas and he joine the renowned revolutionary organisation, Anushilan Samity.But when he went to Berhampur College for BA course, came to know about Jugantar and became more inspired with their ideas. He got more inspiration from the famous Easter Surya Sen to effective action. In a speech delivered in New York in 1920 entitled "India and Ireland", Valera declared: We , of Ireland, and you of India, must each of us endeavour, both as separate people and in combination to rid ourselves of the vampire that is fattening on our blood, and we must never allow ourselves to forget what weapon it was by which Washington rid his country of the same vampire. Surya Sen and his group had undergone physical and armed training . On his return to Chittagong in 1918, he organised Jugantar there. Every revolutionary groups were using Indian National Congress as their umbrella to work.
Postal Stamp in honour of Surya Sen dated 22.03.1978.
Consequently Surya Sen became the President of Chittagong District Committee of the Congress in 1929. He undertook two activiteis. 1. He became a teacher in the Nationa Schoo in Nandankanan and joined the Umatara school at Chandanpura, 2. and began to organise the hardline patriotic organisations. Since then he was known as Masterda among his students and other comarades.
Saturday, July 25, 2009
During and after the war the miseries of the people worsened day by day. As a consequence of the crop failure in 1918-1919, the production of the food grain fell sharply.As against million tons of wheat and 35.9 million tons of rice in 1917-18, the production in 1918-19 was only 7.5 million tons of wheat and 24.3 million tons of rice . This decline in production together with the plunder by traders in foodgrains created apppalling famine conditions in various parts of the country . The famine together with the epidemics that followed took a heavy toll of human lives, particularly among the rural people. The estimated toll in this catatrophe was put between 12 to 13 million.
At the same time , the Indian economy as a whole was heading towards a deep crisis.For instance, the ratio of the prices of goods exported from India to the prices of goods imported in to India was turning unfavourable to the country. Taking the prices of imported goods in 1913-14 as 100, it icreased to 101 in 1914-15, 126 in 1915-16, 170 in 1916-17, 211 in 1917-18, 268 in 1918-19. At the same time the price indices of exports for the same period were 102, 103,117, 125, and 150 respectively.It was when the gap between the two was the widest that famine spread throughout the country.
As regards to the factories the wages off workers diminished proportionately.
Friday, July 24, 2009
The acivities of the League had been suspended for four years and the 15th adjorned meeting were held in Lahore on May,1924, with Mr. Jinnah on the chair. he said that though the non-cooperation movement was a failure, and much harm was done, a great deal of good had also come out of it. There was an open movement for the achievementof swaraj for India.But this movement roused the political awakining even to a person dwelling in a street.This was also the demand of the League.
In the Jamait-ul- Ulema Conference held at Cocanada on DEC. 1923, the president referred to the sponsors of Sudhi movement as the worst enemies of India and expressed the opinion that the Sangathan movement would prove detrimental to the cause of Indian advance. The conference also condemned those activities which were likely to weaken the basis of the unity of Hindu and Muslim.
Serious communal riots vitiated the political atmosphere of India from 1923 onwards.
Thursday, July 23, 2009
Wednesday, July 22, 2009
Though founded as a political organisation, the Muslim League did not develop any noticeable programme even within the frame work of loyalty to the Raj. It was never a meaningful organisation politically until Mohammad Ali Jinnah took its leadership in the second half of the first decade of twentieth century when he became the president of AIYL in 1916. and negotiated the Lucknow pact with the Congress, in which Congress conceded the principle of separate electorates and weighted representation for the Muslim Community.
It is term given to a large number infantry regiments first raised for the British Indian Army. These regiments were originally raised by East India Companyas part of the army of bengal, which was one of the three presidency armies that were absorbed into British Indian army. Composing mainly of recruits from the British Indian province of Bengal.
As a point of history, most regiments of the Bengal Army were dismantled by the British in the aftermath of the Indian rebellion of 1857, due to the fact that the mutiny was believed to have been started because of dissatisfaction amongst the sepoysand sowarsof the army of Bengal. One of the main actors of the mutiny. Mangal Pandey belonged to the 34th Bengal Native Infantry, and it was the incident on March 29,1857 at Barrackpore when he injured the adjutant, Lieautenant Baugh, with a sword after shooting him , that is said to have started the mutiny.
After the decision taken by the Indian National Congress to assist the British in the 1st World War (1914-1918) with men and material in return to their assurance of considering Home Rule by the Indians, the Bengalees, officially and un-officially, took the initiatives of collecting Bengali youths by distributing leaflets, posters etc. to start a Bengali Regiment. Poet Nazrul Islam also took the profession.
this was to be noted that the Begali regiment was again closed in March 1920, for obvious reasons.
The greatest discontinuity in the history of Bengal region occured on June, 1757 when the East India Company -a mercantile company of England became the vertual ruler of Bengalby defeating Nawab of Siraj Ul Daulahthrough conspiracy.Territorial rule by a trading company resulted in the commercialization of power. The initial effects nof the British rule were highly destructive. As the historian R.C.Dutta noted "the people of Bengal had been used to tyranny, but had never lived under an oppression so far effects, extending to every village market and every manufacturers loom. They had been used to arbitrary acts from men in power , but had never suffered from a system which touched their trades, their occupations, ttheir lives so closely.The springs of their industries were stopped, the sources of their wealth dried up, "The plunder of Bengaldirectly contributed to the industrial revolution of England.The capital ammassed in Bengal was invested in the nascent British industries. Lack of capital and fall of demand , on the other hand, resulted in the de-industrialisation in the Bangladesh region. The muslim industry virtually disappeared in the wake of British rule.
The British rule in bengal promoted simultaneously the forces of unity and division in the society. The city based Hindu middle classes became the fiery champions of all India based nationalism. At the same time, The British rule in Bengal brought to surface the rivalry between the Hindus and Muslims which lay dormant during the five hundred years of muslim rule.The class conflict between the Muslim peasantry and Hindu intermediaries during the Muslim rule was diffused by the fact that these intermediaries themselves were agents of the Muslim rulers . Furthermore, the scope of exploitation was limited in the subsistence economy of pre-British Bengal.
The conflict between Muslim peasants and Hindu landlords were reinforced by the rivalry between hindu and Muslim middle classes for the patronage of the imperial rulers. In the nineteenth century, both Hindu and muslim middle classes expanded significantly. The muslim middle class did not remain conflined to traditional aristocracy which consisted primarily of immigrants from other Muslim countries. The British rule in Bengal contributed to the emergence of a vernacular elite from among locally converted Muslims in the second half of the neneteenth century . This was facilitated by a significant expansion of jute cultivation in the angladesh region . The increase in the jute exports benefited the surplus farmers (jotedars) in the lower Bengal where theuslims were the majority. The conomic afflenceof surplus farmers encouraged the expasion of secular education among local Muslims . For example the number of Muslim students in bengal increased by 74 % between 1882-83 and 1912-13.
British india, Punjabi Regiment
Tuesday, July 21, 2009
Sunday, July 19, 2009
On 16 Dec. 1908, Govt. of India issued orders for deporting the following nine Bengalee Hindus,
1.Aswini Kumar Dutta
2.Krishna Kumar Mitra
3. Satis Chatterjee
4. Subodh Mallik
5. Monoranjan Guha Thakurta
6. Shamsundar Chakraborty
7. Pulin Behari Das
8. Bhupesh Chandra Nag
9. Sachindra Prasad Basu.
Pulin Bihari Das, in charge Dhaka Anusilan Samity, opened several branches all acrosthe eastern Bengal and by 1932 it had 500 branches. The members of the samity were mostly school and college students and of middle-class family. Pulin Bihari Das was soon arrested and his successor Makhanlal Sen became in charge of the Samity.
Jugantar party was the leading revolutionary group in Colonial Bengal. Hemchandra Kanungo went to Paris on behalf of the Party to get military and political training. He came back after having trained in JAN. 1908.
Activities of the Organisation:
During 1908 to 1916, atleast 34 govt. officials , Indian and European were killed by the revolutionaries.
From 1909 to 1917, The revolutionaries earned money by Dacoities from bank and other sources, on 37 occasions amounting to Rs. 6,57, 315/-.
Sedition committees report said that the following activities of the revolutionaries during the period mentioned below were noted,
The revolutionary activities also spread in other parts of the country and abroad. But ultimate result was nil.
Saturday, July 18, 2009
In 1908, the newly constructed building of Bangiya Sahitya Parishad was to be opened which was published in papers. Having seen the notification, He came to Calcutta with Dinesh Chandra Sen and became his guest at calcutta. Many important persons from different places of India and abroad came to attend on the occasion. The two storied building at 243/1, Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road became packed up. Having found no way to go 1st floor Rajanikanta remained in the ground floor where he met Rabindra nath Tagore who itroduced him to all the persons present there on the occasion. Being requested by the president he sung two songs and moved the audience. Tagore asked him to come to his house one day. On the next morning he went to Tagore's house. On request he again sung those two songs. Tagore asked him to see within himself as there was nothing in the external world.
The second conference of Bangiya Sahitya Parishad was held at Rajshahi. Rajanikanta attended and got acquianted with many persons of importance.The saddest of all in the life of Rajanikanta was the detection of cancer on his throat in 1909. He had to sell his two Kabya Grantha, Banl and Kalyani, to Gurudas Chattopadhaya and sons for Rs. 400 only to meet his medical expenses. The sufferings he had to face at this was inexpressible. No sign of relief of pain, no sign of remission of fever, moreover serious breathing trouble forced him to come to Calcutta with all his family members . He was admitted to Medical College and his family members remained in Serpentine lane, Clacuuta. He made a will to give all his belongings to his wife. Ultimately he had to be admitted in Medical College where he was operated to make a whole at the throat for his breathing facility.
Friday, July 17, 2009
Sri Sri Sri yukta
Eno amar janye ek jora juta.
Thursday, July 16, 2009
This revocation of the partition of Bengal and certain changes in the administration of India. Firstly, Shifting of capital from Calcutta to New Delhi. Secondly, the five bengali speaking divisions viz, The presidency, Burdwan, Dacca, Rajshahi and Cittagong were to be united and formed into a presidencyto be administered by a Governor-in-council. The area of this province would be 70,000 sq.miles with a population of 42 million . Thirdly, a lieutenant-Governor- in-council with a legislative council was to Govern the province comprising of Bihar, Chatonagpur anfd Orissa. Fourthly, Assam was to revert back to the rule of a Chief commissioner. The date changing for the formal ending of the partition and reunification of Bengal was 1 April, 1912.
This arrangement was done to deprive Calcutta of its prime position as the nerve of centre of political activity necessarily weakened the influence of the Bengalee Hindus. The Govt. felt that this would help the administration by shifting from the seat of the agitated atmosphere of Bengal.
Lord Carmichael, a man of liberal sympathies , was selected as Governor for the first reunified Bengal.
Although the protest was largely Hindu-led still the persons like Nazrul Islam and others prticipated in the struggle.
Wednesday, July 15, 2009
Tuesday, July 14, 2009
Throught the two years 1907 and 1908, there was an acrimonious discussion regarding the separate electorate and the weightage proposed by the Muslim deputation and consented to by Lord Minto. As a consequence to this , the act of 1909, and the regulation made thereunder, embodied in substance the concessions virtually promised by Mintoto the Muslims under these regulations not only did they receive a separate electorate but their number of members in the council was much greater that would be warranted by the numerical strength of their population.
Communal riots to other parts of India
Not only in Mymensing and Comilla districts of Bengal the communal disturbances were spread in Ayodhya and Fyzabadon the occasion of the Muslim festival of Bakrid.
Authorities came down
New Technique was adopted by British rulers which might be termed as "Repression cum Reform" and "rally the moderates" to enforce "Divide and rule" policy.
Inspite of the existence of two conflicting groups within the Congress and of the conflict between the Congress and the League engineered by the rulers, the Govt. had to revoke the parition order and re-unite Bengal into one province after about six years i.e. in 1911. In other words the British rulers came to realise the mass sentiments expressed in the anti-partition agitations was just and irrepressible.
Thus the movement was constrained by two limitations which enabled the rulers to create a split in the anti-partition feelings of the people, which rose first during the partition days in Bengal and later spread through out India and got reflected in the 1906 Congress Session.
1. Although the Calcutta session adopted all the resolutions of Boycott, Swadeshi and Swaraj, but this compromise with the extremists and the moderates were temporary. The two camps moderates and extremists guided by the leaders like Pherozshah mehta, Gopal krishna Gokhale, Rash Behari Ghosh and Surendra Nath Banerjee, on the one side , and the extremists leaders like Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal, and Lala Rajpat Rai, on the other.
2. The Hindu outlook of the Nationalist leaders including the extremists and the Islamic outlook of the new generation of political workers who were emerging from among the Muslims, gave rise to misgivings and lack of confidence between the two communities.This weakness affected in the Indian politics had been utilised by Curzon.
Monday, July 13, 2009
Government repression not confined to picketing and educational institutions to which reference had been made .Government brutality, sometimes , appeared in a naked form. At Barisal alone 66 clerks were dismissed for having connection with Swadeshis. The cry of Bandemataram was forbidden in the streets of Barisal.The Jugantar, the organ of the revolutionary party, was prosecuted.
At the early stages of the anti-partition movement it was sopported by the Muslims of East Bengal. But this was one side of the picture.Lord Curzon, while visiting EastBengal in 1904,influenced many including some Nawabs.For doing in favour of them, Govt. granted a loan of Rs. 14 lakhs to Nawab Salimullah at a very low rate of interest. After that the Mussalmans became hostile day by day which was exemplified by the notorious document , known as Lal Istahar or Red Pamphlet.
The ill-feeling between Hindus and Muslims was spread in a limited area of East Bengal. Only two of the districts out of 13 disturbances were spread.
C. J. O'Donnel, M. P., referred in his book to Hindu-Musalman riots and quoted from judicial proceedings that these were engineered and the Musalmans were led to believe by public proclamationthat they would not be punished for plundering and oppressing the Hindus. He also referred to a number of trials showed how English Judges were biased against the Hindus.
The situation was beautifully expressed by Rabindra Nath in a song, addressed to the british, which quoted as;
Are you so powerful that you will flout and break
All laws of prvidence ?
Are you so proud, you think you will
Break us and mould us ?
The objectives of the AIML were, i) to look after the interests of the Muslims with other Indian communities, ii) to protect and advance the political rights and interest of Muslims in India, and to respectfully represent their needs and aspirations to the Govt., iii) to prevent the rise among the Muslims of India of any feeling of hostility towards other communities without prejudice to the afore-mentioned objects of the league.
The Nationalist press dismissed the Muslim League as a rickety structure, destined to a speedily dissolution . Mohammad Ali Jinnah, a prominant leader of the Congress did not join the AIML till 1913. He tried within the Congress for one-third reservation of his community.
Sunday, July 12, 2009
1. Religion is the Opium of the people,
2. Use the moderates against the extremists in Indian National Congress.
Formation of Muslim League :
Islamic rule was established across northern India between the 7th and the 14th centuries. The Mughal Empire ruled most of India from Delhi since the early 16th century until its power was broken by the British in the 19th century. This left a disempowered and discontented muslim minority, afraid of beingswamped by the Hindu majority. Muslim represents about 23 % of the population of british India, and constituted the majority of the population in Baluchistan, East Bengal, Kashmir Valley, North west frontier Province, Punjab region and the Sindh region of the Bombay Presidency.
Muslim elite like Nawab Abdul Latif, Syed Amir Ali (1849-1928 ) and others established cultural organisations for propagation of English education among the muslims in the absence of which the community would remain deprived of the benefits of the colonial rules.
Syed Ameer Ali (1849-1028)
Thus the Muslim Cultural Organisations like the Mohammedan Litery Society (1863), Central Mohamedan Association (1877), Sir Syed's United Indian Patriotic association (1888) and many otherlocal anzumans became more active in social regenerative activities than in politics.
The Muslim leaders of India met informally once a year ina conference to discuss educational problems of the Muslim community and to dessiminate the thought of loyalty to the Raj. Such a conference (All India Muslim Education Conference ) was held in Shahbag in Dhaka in 1906 against the backdrop of the congress sponsored against the Partition of Bengal (1905) and the Swadeshi Movement . Previously a deputation of Muslim leaders met the Governer General Lord Minto (1907-1911) at Simla in order to ventilate problems, special to the Muslim community of India.
Nawab Salimullah of Dhaka who was at first supporter of anti-partition of Bengal, became a staunchest supporter of the Partition of Bengal felt the need to form a political party with the objectives of safeguarding the interests of the Indian Muslims, Nawab Viqar-ul-Mulk, chairman of the conference, supported the motion and thus the All India Muslim League (AIML) came into being.
Nawab Salimullah of Dhaka