Monday, July 6, 2009

Bangaladesh, Growth of capitalism (1757-1859)

As mentioned in Communist manifesto (1848) by Karl Marx during the last hundred years capitalism in the whole of Europe was expanded in such a way that the productive forces during this century had increased surpassing the records of the previous years enormously. In the first phase of the growth of capitalism british were in need of money and raw material but now they wanted to establish the factories in their colonial countries as in India to avoid high rate salary and other benefits of their own working class and to get cheaf labour force from India. Railway facilities were introduced in India in the later half of the 19th century. for doing that British had done,
1. The rule of India was taken by the Parliament in 1858,
2. To make the grip of administration more stronger than before,
3. To introduce divide and rule policy.
it was forther observed that the monopoly capitalism emerged on a global basis during the closing years of 19th century and the begining of the 20th century. As an inevitable consequence of these the contradictions between the monopoly capitalism of abroad with the capitalist of India intensified. As a matter of fact, it was as part of these developments arose between the ruling British Burgeoisie and the Indian burgeoisie which was aspiring for power. Freedom struggle which was started forming Indian National Congress in 1885 also intesified.
By the closing years of 19th centur, Indian Capitalist had attained a cosiderablystrong position in the cotton textile industry. They had even gone ahead of the British in this Industry by the year 1898. Out of the cpital invested in this industry 2/3 belonged to India, where as in jute, wollen, paper, sugar tea, coffee and indigo sectors, 3/4 of the capital was british owned.Not only in the matter of ownership but also Indians lacked in skilled technical hands like engineers etc.
The major producing countries of jute were Bangladesh amongst India, China, Thailand and Myanmar. Nearlt 75 % of jute are used as packagiing materials, burlap, and sacks. The carpet backing cloth , is the third major jute outlet. Currently, it consists of roughly 15 % of the world's jute consumption.
Quite recently , jute has entered the non-oven industry as it is one of the most codt effectivwe high tesile vegetable fibre. Therfore, the demand of jute has made its way into the automobile industry.Jute is now being used to manufacture more eco-friendly interiors for cars and automobiles.
Jute had been grown in the Indian sub-continent for centuries. It was ptoduced for domestic consumption in the villages of east Bengal. However handmade Bengali jute fabrics were exported to American Markets as early as the eighteenth century. In 1793, the Bengali Board of Trade sent a jute fibre sample to the UK strictly for experimentationrelated to mechnicxal the Kolkata jute Industry surpassed European jute industry.processing. Th ebreakthrough came in 1833, when jute fibre was spunmechanically in Dundee, Scotland. The first Indian jute mill was constructed in 1855 in Kolkata. By the early 1900s