Thursday, July 16, 2009

Bangladesh, Review (contd)

During the prticipation of Bengal new methods of struggle was adopted. These led swadeshi and botcott movements. TheCongress-led boycott of British goods was successful that it unleashed anti-British forces to an extent unknown since the great rebillion . A cycle of violence and repression ensued in some parts of the country (Alipore bomb case). The British tried to mitigate the situation by announcing a series of constitutional reforms in 1909 and by appointing a few moderates to the imperial and provincial councils. In what the British show as an additional goodwill gesture, in 1911, King -Emperor George V visited India, for a DURBAR (a traditional court held for subjects to express fealty to their ruler), during which he announced the reversal of the Partition of Bengal and the transfer of the capital from Calcutta to a newly planned city to be built immediately south of Delhi, which later became New Delhi.
This revocation of the partition of Bengal and certain changes in the administration of India. Firstly, Shifting of capital from Calcutta to New Delhi. Secondly, the five bengali speaking divisions viz, The presidency, Burdwan, Dacca, Rajshahi and Cittagong were to be united and formed into a presidencyto be administered by a Governor-in-council. The area of this province would be 70,000 sq.miles with a population of 42 million . Thirdly, a lieutenant-Governor- in-council with a legislative council was to Govern the province comprising of Bihar, Chatonagpur anfd Orissa. Fourthly, Assam was to revert back to the rule of a Chief commissioner. The date changing for the formal ending of the partition and reunification of Bengal was 1 April, 1912.
This arrangement was done to deprive Calcutta of its prime position as the nerve of centre of political activity necessarily weakened the influence of the Bengalee Hindus. The Govt. felt that this would help the administration by shifting from the seat of the agitated atmosphere of Bengal.
Lord Carmichael, a man of liberal sympathies , was selected as Governor for the first reunified Bengal.
Although the protest was largely Hindu-led still the persons like Nazrul Islam and others prticipated in the struggle.