During the period under consideration the British had undergone several changes of development of capitalism in their own country which affected the administration and method of exploitation in their colonial countries. At the very begining of indian expedition i.e. in 1757, the capitalism was not at the grown up stage, Steam Engine the steam engine was yet to be discovered. They were to utilise their colony only as a minor trades and for collecting revenues. The different trade of companies were deployed for that purpose. In India East India Company was entrusted for that purpose. Even in Bengal they had struggle hard for their dominance over the territory. The different Zaminders as Maharajas were ruling within their jurisdiction with their small or big army at that time.
Reactions against the imposition of British rule in Bengaland Bihar appeared clearly from the Wahabi movement and its offshoots which had a strong centre in this region.
British occuppied territory in 1763
Reactions against British rule at the end of 18th century:
The exact attitude of the Muslims toappeared clearly from the later wahabi movement and iwards the British rule in Bengali was difficult to assess.as there was a sullen resentment against the imposition of British rule in Bengal and Bihar appeared clearly from the later Wahabi movement and its offshoots.
Regarding Hindus the reactions were mixed. Raja Rammohan Roy, Dwaraka nath Tagore, Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyaya etc. were exhausted by the Muslim rule conducted for several centuries and expressed a feeling of great relief to the establishmentof the British power in India. They felt, more or less, liberal character of British administration.
This is to be noted that the capitalism at its beginning stage is much more better than that of feudalism .
But the opposition to the new political set up could be distictly tracedin the case of , i) two Nawabs of Bengal, Mir Jaffar and Mir Kasim and ii) Zaminders, high officials and the army.
It was revealed that the Maharaja Nanda Kumar, the erstwhile friend of the British, was carrying on secret entrigues with the BurdwanRaja and other rebellious zamindars. In 1760, the Raja of Birbhum and Asad-ul-Zaman took up arms against the British. With other powerful Zamindars, they sent an invitation to the emperor Shah Alam.