Thursday, July 2, 2009

Bangladesh, Land and economic reform by British

In 1764, the Mughal Emperor himself granted the Diwani to the British company empowering them the power to rule over the provinces of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa. Thus the English East India Company became the direct controlling authority over a large territory and within hundred years from Plassey the whole of India had been forced to accept the Britsh yoke. The army of the East India company was also similarly constituted.

British occuppied territory in 1815
Though the Marx said that ,
"England has to fulfil a double mission in India, One destructive and the other regenerating". But the England instead of "fulfilling the double mission", played a dual character of destructing the old system without regenerating capitalism in india, as that might be a threat to their interest. Marx, understanding the other possibilities, remarked that, the change in favor of Ondia would take place,
"either the new ruling classes of England be supplanted by industrial proletariat of that country or the Hindus ( meaning Hindusthan) themselves have grown strong enough to throw off the English yoke altogether".
However the new rulers (East India Company) changed the conception of LAND OWNERSHIP which were prevailing in their own country.
Accordingly, "if there is a land it must have its owner" and the whole land of the country was divided in three land owner system, i) Zamindari, ii) Ryotwari and iii) Mahalwari. In any acse, govt. must get some revenues out of the land of the country.
By this way they had improved their collection of revenuesthan that of the previous years.
In the Madras Presidency, under the Ryotwari system, the land revenue collected in the year 1810-1811, was 10,00,000 pound and by 1825-1826 the amount had increased to 40,00,000 Pound. In Bombay Presidency, the revenue collected was 8,00,000 pound in 1817 rising to 11,50,000 in in the next year asnd 18,60,000 in 1837-1838.
In Bengal, Moghul Emperor collected 8,18,000 in 1764-1765where as british collected 14,70,000 in 1765-1766 and 28,60,000 in 1790-1791 all the measurements were in pounds.