Friday, July 30, 2010

Economy, Agricultural Sector

Agriculture in Mongolia constitutes 20% of Mongolia's annual gross domestic product and employs 42% of the labor force. Only one per cent of the arable land in Mongolia is cultivated with crops. The agriculture sector therefore remains heavily focused  on nomadic animal husbandrywith 75% of the land allocated to pasture, and cropping only employing 3% of the population. Crops produced in Mongolia include corn,wheat, barely, and potatoes.
Animals raised commercially in Mongoliainclude sheep, goats, cattle, horses, camels, and pigs. They are raised primarily fot meat, although goats are valued for their hairs which can be used to produce cashmere.
In 1985 agriculture accounted for only 18.3 % of national income and 33.8 % of the labor force. But agricultural product in mongolia is important because much of mongolia's induustry depends on 1930s Govt began to develop state farms.
In 1950s modern techniques and Soviet assistance improved a lot in agriculture.
In 1950s, according to Mongolian Govt statcstics , state farms and other state organizations owned approximately 0.9 % of livestock and 37.8 % of sown areas; negdels had about 0.5 % of livestock and no swon lands; and private owners held 98.3% of livestock and 62.2 % of sown areas.In 1960 state farms and other state organizations owned 2.7 % of livestock, negdels , 73.8% , and individual negdel members ,23.5 %. the sector owned 77.5 % of sown areas, and the cooperative sector the remainder.

Negdels, which concentrated on livestock production,were organized into brigad and then into suuri (bases), composed of several house hold. They adopted the Soviet system of herding. In 1985 the average negdel had 61,500 head of livestock, 438,500 hectares of land, of which 1,200 was plowable. due bto development of state farm, this was restricted.In 1985 the average state farm employed 500 workers.
the mongolian agriculture sector has four discrete subsectors.

Wednesday, July 28, 2010

Government and Politics of Mongolia

State Great Khural Chamber :In January 26 1952,Yumjaagiin tsedenbal took power.In 1956 and again in 1962, Choibalsan's personality cult was condemned at the ruling Mongolian People's revolutionary Party Central committee Plenum.Mongolia continued to align itself closely with the Soviet Union,specially after the Sino-soviet split of te late 1950s . In the 1980s an estimated  55,000 soviet troops were based in Mongolia . while Tsedenbalwas visiting Moscow in August 1984. his severe illness prompted the parliament to announce his retirement and replace him with Jambyn Batmaonk.Democratic RevolutionThe intrduction of perestroika and glasnost in the USSR by Mikhail Gorbachev strongly influenced Mongolian politics leading to the peaceful Democratic revolution and the intrductionof a multiparty system and market economy. A new constitution was introducedd in 1992, and the People's Republic was dropped from the country's name. The transition to market economy was often rocky , the early 1990s saw high inflation and food shortages. the first election won for non-communist parties came in 1993and 1996.Government and Politics:  Mongolia is a parliamentary Republic. parliament is elected by the people in turn elects he Govt. The President is elected directly.Mongolia's constitution guarantees full freedom of expression, religion and others. Mongolia has a number of political parties, The biggest one is the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP)and the Democratic Party (DP).MPRP formed the Govt of the country from 1921-1996 ( until 1990 in a one Party system)and from 2000-2004 from 2004-2006 it was part of a coalition with the DP and the two other parties.and since 2006 it has been the dominating party But DP was the dominant party in coalition between 1996-2000.MPRP won the the last round of parliamentary elections , held in 2008.  

Sukhbaatar Square in front of the Saaral Ordon that houses the office of the Prime Minister and President.

Tuesday, July 27, 2010

History of Mongolia

The Mongolian gained fame n the 13th centurywhen under Chenggis Khan they conquered a huge Eurosian empire.After his death the empire was divided into several powerful Mongol States, but these broke apart in the 14th centuryMongols eventually retired to their original steppe homelands and later came under Chinese rule.Mongolia won its independence in 1921with Soviet backing. A communist regime was installed in 1924. During the early 1990s, the ex-communist Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) gradually yielded its monopoly on power to the Democratic Union Coalition (DUC), which defeated the MPRP in a National Election in 1956. Since then Parliamentary elections returned the MPRP overwhemingly to powerin 2000 and produced a coalition govt. in 2004.. 

Geography of Mongolia

Mongolia has three distinct features in its Geographical accounts.1. Mountains,2.Rivers, 3.lakes.
1. i) Mongolia has three major mountain ranges. The highest is the Atlai Mountains which stretch across the western and the south-western regions of the country on a north-west to south-east axis. (ii) the Hangayn Nuruu, mountains also trending north-west to south-east, occupy much of central and north-central Mongolia. These are older, lower, and more eroded mountains , with many forests and alpine pastures. (iii) The Hentiyn Nuruu, mountains near the Soviet border to the to the north-east of Ulaanbaatar, lower still.
Much of eastern Mongolia is occuppied  by a plane, and the lowest . The lowest area is is a south-west to northeast trending depression that reaches from the Gobi region in the south to the eastern frontier
Lists of Rivers and Lakes :
In Mongolian a river is  known as "gol' and "iin" is added to the the name of the river.e.g., Ider River is known as Ideriin Gol in Mongolian.
The rivers drain in three directions : (i) north to the arctic ocean, (ii) east to the pacific, (iii) south to the desert and the depressions of inner Asia. Rivers are most extensively developed in the north, and the countries major river system is that of the Selenge - Moron, which drains into Lake Baykal. Some minor tributaries of Siberia's Yenisey river also rise in the mountains of north-western Mongolia. Rivers in the northeastern Mongolia drain into the pacific throughthe Argun and Amur (Heilong Jiang) rivers, while the few streams of southern and southwestern Mongolia do not reach the sea but run into salt lakes or deserts.

Monday, July 26, 2010


Mongolia is a land locked country in east and central Asia.It borders Russia to the north and People's Republic Of Chinato he south, east, and west. Although Mongolia does not share a border with Kazakhstan, its western-most point is only 38 kms from Kazakhstan's eastern tip.Ulaanbaatar, the capital and largest city, is the home of about 38% of the population.Mongolia's political system is a parliamentary republic.
Approximately 30% of the population are nomadic or semi-nomadic. About 20% of the population live on less than US $ 1.25 per day i.e., international poverty line.
It belongs to lower middle income group. Its position from the bottom is 42nd, and from the top 164 with National Averge per Capita Income using atlas method, 2003 estimate.
In other methods IMF, WB and CIA (nominal) eatimate 2007, 2007 and 2008 respecively.

Sunday, July 25, 2010

Human resources of Vietnam

Education ; Vietnam has an extensive State controlled network of Scools, Colleges and Universities but the number privately run and mixed public and private Institution is also growing.Courses are taught mainly in Vietnamese.In Vietnam, education from age 6 to 11 is free and comulsory. The school enrolment is  highest in the world. The number of colleges and universities increased dramatically in recent years, from 178 in 2000 to 299 in 2005.
Health ; The overall quality of health in Vietnam is regarded as good, as reflected by 2005 estimates of life expectancy  (76.61 years).gov. subsidies covered only about 20% of health care and remaining 805 is borne by the individual.
Science and technology; Historically , Vietnamese scholars did no                   not     practice Science in its general terms but many academic fields are developed,especially social sciences and humanities.
Culture; Vietnam is an agricultural civilization based on wet rice cultivation  with ancient Dong Son culture as one of its defining aspects.The officially spoken and written language is Vietnamese.Vietnam is considered a part of the East-Asian Cultural Sphere or Sinosphere.
In the socialist era , the cultural life of Vietnam has been deeply influenced by Govt. controlled media and the cultural influences of socialist programs.Vietnamese traditional garments is the Ao Dai, while Ao dai is the required uniform for girls in many schools.
Vietnamese cuisine uses very little oil.
Vietnamese literature has long history. 

Friday, July 23, 2010

Religion of Vietnam (contd-1)

The constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam formally allows religious freedom. In 2007, Vietnam News reported that Vietnam has six religions recognized by the state : (Budhism, Cathlicism, Protestantism, Islam, Cao dai, and Hoa Hao), Subsequently the Committee for Religious Affairs granted operation registration certificates to three new religions and a religious sect in in addition to six existing religions.Mahayama Budhism first spread from China ti vietnam'sred River delta's around 300 BC.Theravada Budhism arrived from India into the southern Mekong Delta region many years later, between 300-600 AD.
Hoa Hao is a religious tradition based on Budhism and founded in 1939. Roman catholicism first entered the country through portuguese catholic missionariesin the 16th century.
Protestantism was intrduced in 1911..

Religion of Vietnam

Although most Vietnamese list themselves as having no religious affiliation, religion as defined by shared beliefs and practices, remains an integral part of Vietnamese life, dictating the social behaviors and spiritual practices of Vietnamese individuals in Vietnam and abroad. The triple religion , referring to the synthetic combination of Mahayana Buddhism, Confucianism, and Taoism remains a strong influence on the beliefs and practices of the Vietnamese even if the levels of formal membership in these religious communities may not reflect that influence.
one of the most notable and universal spiritual practices common to Vietnamese is ancestor veneration, a practice shared with Chinese and most other Asian cultures. Practically all Vietnamese, regardless of formal religious affiliation, have an altar in their home or business where prayers are offered to their ancestors. these offerings and practices are frequently done during important traditional or religious celebrations (e.g. death, birth, marriage etc.), the starting of a new business. Belief in ghosts and spirits is common ; it is commonly believed that failing to perform the proper rituals for one's ancestors will cause them become hungry ghosts.
A 2002 Pew Research Center report claimed that only 24% of the population  claimed that only 24% of the population of Vietnam view religion as "very important."      
The constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam formally allows religious freedom.                                          

Thursday, July 22, 2010

Demographics of Vietnam

Originating in what is now southern China and northern Vietnam, the Vietnamese people pushed souwaard over two millennia to occupy the entire eastern seacoast of the Indochinese Peninsula. Ethnic Vietnamese, or Viet (known officially as kinh), live in the low lands and speak the Vietnamese language.This group dominates much of the cultural and political landscape of Vietnam. The Vietnamese government recognizes 54 ethnic groups, of which the viet is the largest, according to official Vietnamese figures (1999 census), ethnic Vietnamese account for 86% of the nation's population. The ethnic Vietnamese inhabit a little less than half of Vietnam, while the ethnic minorities inhabit the majority of Vietnam's land.the Khmer Krom are found in the delta of the Meckong River, in the south of Vietnam, where they form in many areas   the majority of the rural population.They live in an area which was previously part of Cambodia and which Vietnam conquered in the 17th and 18th centuries.Official Vietnam figures put the Khmer Krom at 1.3 million people. However, estimates vary from 1.1 to 7 million  The relation between China and Vietnam also declined in this period, with Vietnam along with the Soviet union against China in the China-Soviet split. tensions peaked whin Vietnam invaded Cambodia, an ally of China, to depose Pol Pot, resulting in a Chinese invasion in 1979. in 1978-1979 some 450,000 ethnic Chinese left Vietnam by boat as refugees.    

Transport in Vietnam

Main transports of Vietnam consists of Railways, small and heavy vehicles, Boats and Ships and aeroplaneRailways1.Total-2,652km, 2. Standard gauge-180 km , 3. narrow gauge- 2,249 km, 4. dual gauge-237km. Railway links to adjacent countries: 1. China-237km, dual gauge, 2. Cambodia, 3. Laos. Towns to be served by rails: Loc Ninh- Near Cambodia border, Di An- junction for Loc Ninh, Ho Chi minh: Loc Ninh railway at US$438 mil. The net work consists of 7 lines with a total length of 2,632km.All lines are single track,mostly meter gauge, with a few standard gaugeand double gauge towards the Chinese border. There are over  1,800 bridges (57,044m)and 39 tunnels (11,513m) and 281 stations. The Vietnam Railway Corporation (VRC) is the sole supplier of rail services in Vietnam.
Urban Transport ;Motorcyle are primary mode of transportin the major Vietnamese cities. 

Waterways: inland boats, international ship.
Air transport:CAAV handles civil aviation.