Friday, July 30, 2010

Economy, Agricultural Sector

Agriculture in Mongolia constitutes 20% of Mongolia's annual gross domestic product and employs 42% of the labor force. Only one per cent of the arable land in Mongolia is cultivated with crops. The agriculture sector therefore remains heavily focused  on nomadic animal husbandrywith 75% of the land allocated to pasture, and cropping only employing 3% of the population. Crops produced in Mongolia include corn,wheat, barely, and potatoes.
Animals raised commercially in Mongoliainclude sheep, goats, cattle, horses, camels, and pigs. They are raised primarily fot meat, although goats are valued for their hairs which can be used to produce cashmere.
In 1985 agriculture accounted for only 18.3 % of national income and 33.8 % of the labor force. But agricultural product in mongolia is important because much of mongolia's induustry depends on 1930s Govt began to develop state farms.
In 1950s modern techniques and Soviet assistance improved a lot in agriculture.
In 1950s, according to Mongolian Govt statcstics , state farms and other state organizations owned approximately 0.9 % of livestock and 37.8 % of sown areas; negdels had about 0.5 % of livestock and no swon lands; and private owners held 98.3% of livestock and 62.2 % of sown areas.In 1960 state farms and other state organizations owned 2.7 % of livestock, negdels , 73.8% , and individual negdel members ,23.5 %. the sector owned 77.5 % of sown areas, and the cooperative sector the remainder.

Negdels, which concentrated on livestock production,were organized into brigad and then into suuri (bases), composed of several house hold. They adopted the Soviet system of herding. In 1985 the average negdel had 61,500 head of livestock, 438,500 hectares of land, of which 1,200 was plowable. due bto development of state farm, this was restricted.In 1985 the average state farm employed 500 workers.
the mongolian agriculture sector has four discrete subsectors.