Wednesday, December 31, 2008

Ethiopia (CONTINUED)

Human settlement in Ethiopia dates back to prehistoric times. Fossilised remains of the earliest ancestors to human species, discovered in Ethiopia, have been assigned dates as long ago as 5.9 million years . Together with Eritrea and southeastern part of the Red Sea coast of sudan (Beja Netjeru, meaning land of the Gods), whose first mention dates to the twentyfifth century BC.
History of Ethiopia
1. Evolution of hominids
2. Prehistory
3. Punt ( 3rd. millionum BC - 1st. m. BC)
4. D'mt ( 8th. century BC - 7th. century BC)
5. Proto - Aksum (1st c. BC - 10thc. AD)
6. Aksum ( 1st. c. BC - 10th. c. BC)
7. Gudit ( 10th. c. AD) : Dark ages of Ethiopia
8. Zagwe Dynasty (10th. or 11th. c. - 1268)
9. First Solomonic Period (1270 - 1527)
10. Invasion of Gragu ( 1527 - 1543)
11. Great Oromo migration ( 1543 - 16th. c.)
12. Ottoman Invasion (1557 - 17th. c. )
13. Gondarine Dynasty (1606 - 1755)
14. Zemene Mesafint ( 1755 -- 1855)
15. Modernization ( 1855 - 1936)
16. Second Italo-Abysinium War ( 1935 - 1936)
17. Italian East Africa (1936 - 1941)
18. East African campaign (World War II - 1941)
19. Italian guerrila War ( 1941 - 1943)
20. Second modernisation ( 1941 _ 1974 )
21. Eritrean War of Independence (1961 - 1991 )
22. Ethiopian Civil War ( 1974 - 1991) ; Derg Period
23. Biginning of Communist gov., Workers Party of Etiopia,WPE.
24. Erirean - Ethiopian War (1998 - 2000)
25. Ogaden conflict (2007 -2008)
The first records of Ethiopia proper come from Egyptian traders from about 3000 BC, who refer to lands of south of Nubia or Cush as punt or Yam. The first known voyage to Punt occured in the 25th. century BC under the reign of Pharao. the famous expedition was during the reign of Queen Hatshepsutaround 1495 BC .
The twentififth Dynasty of Egypt (roughly 743 BC - 656 BC)was actually an Ethiopian dynasty. during this period Ethiopia ruled Egypt . Their most accomplished pharao during this time was Taharqa who wore two snakes on his crown signifying sovereignty of both Egypt and Ethiopia
this Dynasty was known as D'mt dynasty..

The ruins of the temple at Yeha dates to the
7th. or 8th. c. BC.
The D'mt kingdom developed irrigation schemes, used ploughs, grew millet, and even made iron tools and weapons.
In the early churches of Ethiopia indicates that much of the country once embraced Jewish beliefs and cultures as part of its religious system influenced by Egypt or trade links along the red sea coast. The temple at Yeha (in Tygray Province) , said to be erected in the 6th. centuryBC, is an architecttural copy of other Jewish temples found in Israel.
After the fall of D'mt dynasty in the 4th. c. BC. the plateau came to be dominated by smaller successor kingdoms, until the rise of one of these kingdoms during the first century BC , the Aksumite Kingdom, ancestor of medieval and modern Ethiopia, was able to reunite the area. They established the bases on the northern highlands of Ethiopian plateau and from there expaned southward.The persian religious figure Mani listed Aksum with Rome, Persia and China as one of the four great powers of the time. At this time Christanity was proclimed the official state religion. The name of Ethiopia appears in the Old testament .The rulers claimed to dominate most of modern Yemen and some of southern Saudi Arabia just across the red sea , as well as controlled southern Egypt, northern Sudan, northern Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti and northern Somalia.

King Ezana's Stele in Axum
The end the Aksumite Kingdom is as much of a mystery as its beginning. Lacking a detailed history, the kingdom's fall has been attributed to a persistent drought, overgrazing, plague, a shift in trade routes that reduced the importance of the Red Sea or a combination of these factors. The muslim historian Abu Ja'far al-Khwarazmias stating that the capital of the kingdom of Habas was Jarma.

Monday, December 29, 2008

Ethiopia, Africa

There are two common ways of presenting per capita income data .One way is to adjust for the cost of living in each country. This is called the PPP method which stands for Purchasing Power Parity. Most of the per capita income figures thrown around are PPP figures whether or not it is stated.The second method is called the Atlas method . these figures are addjusted for currency values and inflation according to various scheme. In this method as measured in 2003 Ethiopia's rank is 208th. with per capita gnp, Atlas method, being 90$ only.
In fact, out of 52 countries in Africa, there are atleast 10 countries whose rank is tenth from the bottom. Though the positions of the countries differ in different methods and in different years which is shown in the following figures :
Atlas method, measured in 2003 ;
Rank /Country/ gnp/capita in$
208 Ethiopia 90
207 Dem.
Rep. of
Congo 100
207 Burundi 100
206 Liberia 130
205 Guinea-
Bissau 140
204 Sierra
Leone 150
203 Malawi 170
202Tajikistan 190
202 Eritrea 190
201 Niger 200
PPP Method masured in 2003
208 Sierra Leone 530
207 Malawi 600
206 Tanzania 610
205 Burundi 620
204 Dem.Rep.
Congo 640
203 Guinea-
Bissau 660
202 Ethiopia 710
202 Congo,Rep. 710
201 Madagascar 800
200Yemen. Rep. 820
GDP (PPP) measured in
Source: IMF W.B. CIA
Rank/Amount R/A R/A
Zimbabwe 179/188 N/A 194/200
Congo 178/312 167/298 193/300
Liberia 177/358 165/358 191/500
Burundi 176/372 166/341 192/300
Niger 174/667 162/628 187/700
Leone 173/693 161/677 188/600
Rep. 172/726 160/714 185/700
Afganistan 171/733 n/a 177/1,000
Map of Africa

Map of Ethiopia

Ethiopia is one of the oldest countries in the world and second most populous
country in Africa.Its capital Addis Ababa claims to be the point from which
human beings migrated around the world. Ethiopia's borders unerwent significant
territorial expansion to its modern borders due to several migrations and
commercial integration as well as coquests.The country is famous for its
1984 devastating famine and also for performance in the Olympic in
long distance meets.It is also the second -oldest country to have
become officially Christian, after Armenia. It has also a considerable
Muslim minority since the earliest days of Islam in ninth century.
It became a mamber of the League of Nations in 1923 and signed
the declaration by UN in 1942 and was one of the 51 original members
of the UN.Addis Ababa, being the headquarter of African Union, is also
the headquarters of United Nations Economic Commission for Africa
(UNECA) of which Ethiopia was the pricipal founder.There are about 45 Ethiopian embasies in and around the World.
Population density : 181/sq.miles.
GDP (PPP) in 2007:
Total: 62.244 billion$

PPP per capita 806$

GDP (Nominal)
Total 19.431$
Nominal per capita 251$
HDI 0.406 (low), 169th.
Name :
It is very difficult to say how old the name Ethiopia is but its earliest appearence was in the two Greek epic Iliad and Odyssey written by Homer, supposed to be published in the 9th. 0r 8th century BC. The roots of the Ethiopian state are similarly deep, dating with unbroken continuity to at least the Aksumite Empire, which officially used the name Ethiopia in the 4th. century known by the stone inscription of the king Ezana. There are three opinions in the explanations of the significance of the name ethiopia,
1. Some recent English scholars are of opinion that it was derived from the Greek word Athiopiam, meaning "of burnt face.
2. The book of Aksum , compiled in the 15th. century, states that the name s derived from "Ityopp'is" - a son ( unmentioned in the bible) of Cush, son of Ham, who according to legend founded the city of Axum.and the name was taken from some one Aethiops.
3. A third etymology , suggested by late Ethiopian scholar and poet laureate Tsegaye Gabre-Medhin, traces name to the original black Egyptian words Et (Truthof Peace) Op (high or upper) an bia (land, country), or "land of higher peace". The country was once known as Abyssnia, derived from Havesh, An early Arabic form of the Ethiosemitic name "Habasat," modern Arabic Al Habeshah, meaning land of habesha people.


Four poorest of the poor countries of the World

A close study of GDP and GNP/Capita of
the different poorest of the poor countries of
the world reveals that the rank of the
countries in regard to their economic status
is not only changing from year to year but also
changing due to the change of the methods
of measurement.We consider in details
the relavancy of the above statement
with the help of the following countries.
1.Ethiopia, 2. Dem.Rep. of Congo, 3. Burundi, 4. Guinea-Bissau
Year of Measurement : 2003
GNP/ capita
Rank (Atlas Method) - 208/ 207/206/ 205
gnp/capita 90/100/100/140
Rank ( PPP ,, ) - 201 /204/205/203
gnp/capita 720/640/620/600
Year of Measurement : 2005
GDP (billion $) =11.1/6.89/.72/.28
Rank = 99/117/186/203
GDP = 11.1

Saturday, December 27, 2008

GDP per Capita

( FIG. 1)
Map of countries by 2007 GDP (nominal)
per capita ( IMF, April 2008 ).

(FIG- 2)
World map for the year 2007 of GDP (PPP)
per capita : source World bank

(Fig- 3)

World map for the year 2007 of GDP (PPP)
per capita : Source International Monetary

( FIG - 4)
World map for the year 2007 of GDP (PPP)
per capita. Source: Central Intelligence agency.
GNP of the World given in the last article does
reflect the actual status or the peples living
standard of a country. As for example China's GNP
in 2005 is 2,264 billion dollar $ and its rank is 4th.
- whereas its GDP (PPP) per capita measured by
IMF in 2007 is 5,325 $ per capita and its rank is
100th. So par as India is concerned its GDP in 2005
was 793 billion $ and rank was 10th., but its GNP per
capita (PPP) measured by IMF in 2007 was 2,563 $
and its position was 129.
Though there are two common ways of presenting
per capita income data measured by different
institutions still it gives rise to almost similar result
because the source of information provided by the
government of that country are same and there is
little research done on this topic.
Firstly, PPP method which stands for Purchasing
Power Parity (PPP) are of two types, i) where
it indicates the value of all final goods and
services produced within a nation in a
given year divided by the average
( or mid-year) population for the same year .
Various organisations such as IMF, W.B., CIA
took part in the calculations. ii) GDP (nominal)
per capita - the figures presented here do not
take into account differences in the cost of
living in different countries, an the result
can vary greatly from one year to another
based on fluctuations in the exchange rates
pf the country's currency.
A few examples may explain the situation:
1. USA
GDP GDP/capita GDP/Capita
measured ( nominal) (ppp)
in 2005 in 2007 in 2007
by IMF by IMF
Rank 1 12 6
Data Data Data
12,970 45,725 $/ 45,726$/
billion $ capita capita
2. China
Rank 4 Rank 107 Rank 100
Data Data Data
2,264 2,483$/ 5,325$/
billion$ capita capita
3. India
Rank 10 Rank 134 Rank 129
Data Data Data
793 942$/ 2,563$/
billion$ capita capita

Monday, December 22, 2008

gnp map of the world

!st. 2nd. 3rd. world map map

2nd. world map (prior 1991)

Human Development Index Map

Gross Domestic Product PPP
The gross domestic product(GDP) or gross

domestic income (GDI) is one of the measures

of national income and output for a given country's

economy, (GDP) is defined as the total market
value of all final goods and services produced

within the country in a given period of time.

GDP= Consumption+gross investment +

government spending+( export - import),
or GDP= C+I+G+(X-M)

Which one is the map of 3rd. world



Gross National product /capita
These maps show the changing distribution of
Gross National product/capita. Gross national
product is the total value added from domestic
and foreign sources claimed by residents of a country.
In other words it is gdp (Gross Domestic Product),
the value of goods and services produced within a country)
plus net income received by the residents from
non-resident sources.GNP/Capita is the total
above total divided by the number of people
in the country.In other words , GNP/Capita
is a measure of national income per person.

What the map says:
This sequence of maps suggests that
the global pattern of national income
has remained almost stable during 1960-1999.There is a below $2 per day region of the world
in the region of Africa and Asia. There is a
High-income group, also, which includes
OECD group .

Distribution, 2005.
Country/ Rank/ GNP in dollars
Japan 2 xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx 4,988
Germany 3 xxxxxxxxxxxx2,852
China 4 xxxxxxxxxx 2,264
UK 5 xxxxxxxxxx 2,264
France 6 x xxxxxxxxxx 2,178
Italy 7 xxxxxxxx 1,72
Spain 8 xxxxxxxx 1,100
Canada 9 xxxxxxxx 1,052
India 10 xxxxxxx 793
Korea 11
(N+S) 11 xxxxxxx 777
Mexico 12 xxxxxxx 753
Australia 13 xxxxxx 655
Brazil 14 xxxxxx 644
Russia 15 xxxxxx 639
Netherlands 16 xxxxx 598
Swiitzerland 17 xxxx409
Taiwan 18 xxx 386
Belgium 19xxx374
Sweden 20 xxx 371
Turkey 21 xxx 342
Austria 22 xxx 304
Arabia 23 xx 289
Indonesia 24 xx 282
Norway 25 xx 275
Poland 26 xx 271
Denmark 27 xx 257
Africa 28 xx 224

Greece 29 xx 218
Thiland 30 x 197
Finland 31 x 196
Iran 32 x 187
Argentina 33 x 173
Portugal 34 X 171
Ireland 35 x 129
ISRAEL 36 X 129
Venezuela 37 x 128
Malaysia 38x 126
Singapore 39 x 120
United Arab
Emirates 40 x 112
Czech Rep. 41 x 109
Philipines 42 x 108
Pakistan 43 x 107
New Zealand 44 x 107
Colombia 45 x 105
Myanmar 46 x 103
Hungary 47 x 101
Chile 48 .. 95.6
Egypt 49 .. 92.9
Algeria 50 .. 89.6
Romania 51 .. 82.9
Nigeria 52 .. 74.2
Peru 53 .. 73
Ukraine 54 .. 71.4
Bangladesh 55 .. 66.2
Kwait 56 .. 59.1
Morocco 57 .. 52.3
Vietnam 58 .. 51.7
Puerto Rico 59 .. 47.5
Kazakhastan 60 .. 44.4
Slovakia 61 ..34.7
Croatia 62 .. 35.8
Ecuador 63. . 34.8
Slovenia 64 .. 34.7
Libya 65 .. 32.4
Guatemala 66 .. 30.3
Luxemburg 67.. 30.0
Tunisia 68 .. 29.0
Belarus 69 .. 27.0
Yogoslavia 70 .. 26.8
Bulgaria 71 .. 26.7
Syria 72 .. 26.4
Lithuania 73 .. 24.1
Sudan 74 .. 23.3
Oman 75 .. 23.0
Srilanka 76 .. 22.8
Lebanon 77 .. 22.1
Angola 78 .. 21.5
Dominican Rep. 79 .. 21.1
Costa Rica 80 .. 19.9
Kenya 81 .. 18.0
El Salvador 82 .. 16.8
Cameroon 83 .. 16.5
Iraq 84 .. 16.0
Latvia 85 .. 15.5
Ivory Coast 86 .. 15.3
Uruguay 87 .. 15.1
Qatar 88 .. 15.0
Panama 89 .. 14.9
Cyprus 90 .. 14.3
Iceland 91 .. 13.7
and Tobago 92 .. 13.6
Jordan 93 .. 13.5
Uzbekistan 94 .. 13.5
Tanzania 95 .. 12.7
Yemen 96 .. 12.7
Estonia 97 .. 12.2
Cuba 98 .. 11.2
Ethiopia 99 .. 11.1
Azerbaijan 100 .. 10.4
Baharain 101 .. 10.3
Ghana 102 . 9.99
Bosnia 103 . 9.54
Bolivia 104 . 9.27
Botswana 105 . 9.15
Jamaica 106 . 9.03
Honduras 107 . 8.59
Brunei 108 . 8.54
Senegal 109 . 8.25
Albania 110 . 8.07
Uganda 111 . 7.94
Paraguay 112 . 7.85
Nepal 113 . 7.28
Macao 114 . 7.09
Afganistan 115 . 6.96
Gabon 116 . 6.93
Dem. Rep.

of Congo 117.6.93
Turkmenistan 118 . 6.63
Mauritus 119 . 6.56
Mazambique 120 . 6.14
Nambia 121 . 6.07

Georgia 122 . 6.02
Martinique 123 . 6.01
Reunion 124 . 6.00
Macedonia 125 . 5.75
Zambia 126 . 5.67
Malta 127 . 5.94
Madagascar 128 . 5.37
Cambodia 129 . 5.34
Burkina faso 130 . 5.24
Mali 131 . 5.12
Nicaragua 132 . 4.97
Bahamas 133 . 4.92
French Polynesia 134 . 4.76
Zimbabwe 135 . 4.46
Armenia 136 . 4.44
Benin 137 . 4.34
Guadeloupe138 . 4.16
Haiti 139 . 3.88
Chad 140 . 3.87
Papua Newguinea 141 . 3.87
Congo 142 . 3.79
Guinea 143 . 3.51
Niger 144 . 3.35
New Caledonia 145 . 3.25
Moldova 146 . 3.17
Jersy & guermsey 147 . 2.78
Fiji 148 . 2.78
Bermuda 149 . 2.68
Barbados 150 . 2.63
Laos 151 . 2.62
Swaziland 152 . 2.58
Netherland Antilles 153 . 2.48
Isle of Man 154 . 2.34
Kyrgystan 155 . 2.29
Tazikistan 156 . 2.18
Togo 157 . 2.16
US Virgin Islands 158 . 2.14
Malawi 159 . 2.08
Rwanda 160 . 2.07

Aruba 161 . 1.98
Mongolia 162. 2.76
Guam 163 . 1.72
Lesotho 164 . 1.72
Mauritania 165 . 1.72
french Guiana 166 . 1.67
Central African Rep.167 . 1.40
Andorra 168 . 1.38
Liechenstein 169 . 1,34
Sierra Leone170 . 1.21
Greenland 171 . 1.18
Suriname 172 . 1.12
Somalia 173 . 1.12
Belize 174 . 1.02

Monaco 175 . 1.01
Cape Verde 176 / o.95
Cayman Island 177/ 0.93
Antigua Barbuda 178/ 0.89

Eritrea 179/0.85
Djibouti 180/ 0.81
Bhutan 181/ 0.80
Saint Lucia 182/ 0.79
Maldives 183/ o.79
Guyana 184/ 0.76
East Timor 185/ 0.73
Burundi 186/ 0.72
Seychelles 187/ 0.70
Faroe Island 188/ 0.58
Equatoria Guinea 189/ 0.53

Mayotte 190/0.50
Gibralter 191/ 0.49
American Samoa 192/ 0.47
Gambia 193/ 0.44
Leberia 194/ 0.44
St. Vincent and the
Grenadines 195/ 0.43
SanMarino 196/0.42
Grenada 197/ 0.42
Comoros 198/ 0.39
western Samoa199/ 0.39
St. Kitts and Nevis 200/ 0.39
Vanuatu 201/ 0.34
British Virgin Islands 202/ o.30
Solomon 203/ 0.28
Guinea Bissau2040.28
Dominica 205/0.i27
Micronesia 206/ 0.25
Tonga 207/ 0.22
Northern Mariana Islands 208/0.19
Marshall Islands 209/0.19
Nauru 210/ 0.17
Turks and Calcos islands 211/ 0.15
Islands Palau 212/ 0.15
kiribati 213/0.14
Anguilla 214/ 0.10
Cook Islands 215/ 0.09
Sao tome and principe 216/ 0.06
Montserrat 217/ 0.06
Wallis and Futuna 218/ 0.06
St. Pierre and Miquelon 219/ 0.05
St. Helena 220/ 0.04
Falkland Islands 221/ 0.04
Tuvalu 222/ 0.03
Niue 223/0.02Tokelau 224/ 0.01

Sunday, December 21, 2008

Classification of third world countries

The third world countries are clssified in the following ways:
1. Interms of political rights and civil liberties,
2. In terms of Press freedom,
3. In terms of their human development,
4. In terms of poverty,
5. in terms of their gross national income ( GNP).
1. In terms of their political rights and civil liberties:
Believe it or not, according to the Freedom House report, 2007, there are certain countries in the world with most repressive activities by the adminstrative authorities.They are said to have worst records for political rights and civil liberties. Within these countries and territories, state control over daily life is pervasive and wide ranging, independent organisations and political opposition are banned or suppressed and fear of retributionfor independent thoght and action is part of daily life.
Accoring to the Freedom House report Freedom in the World, 2007, there are eight countries judged to have the worst records. These are,
Burma (Myanmar), Cuba, Libya, North Korea, Somalia, Sudan, Turkeminstan and Uzbekistan. The report also includes nine more countries near the bottm of Freedom House's list of the most repressive countries, such as :
Belarus, China, Cote d'ivoire, Equatorial guinea, Eritea, laos,Saudi Arabia, Syria and Zimbabwe.
The territory of Western Sahara ( most of the territory is controlled by Morocco) is also included in this group.
This second group is better than "worst of the worst".
It is to be noted that there are three countries run by the Communist Government, e.g. China, Cuba and North Korea whose concept about freedom is diferent from the ordinary concept of freedom and to be discussed in a suitable place.
2. Third World countries in terms of press freedom: The list of countries given below may be called Third World for Press Freedom, the "black holes"for news where the private media is not allowed and freedom of expression does not exist The list of countries right at the bottm of the fourth world index,
Sl. Country Region Score
147 Tunisia Northern Africa 57.50
148 Maldives South Central Asia 58.50
149 Somalia Eastern Africa 59.00
150 Pakistan South Cintral Asia 61.25
151 Bangladesh Eastern Europe 61.33
152 Belarus Eastern Africa 64.25
153 Zimbabwe Middle east 66.00
154 South Arabia South East Asia 66.50
155 Lao PDR South central Asia 66.50
156 Uzbekistan Western Asia/middle East 67.00
157 Iraq South East Asia 73.25
158 Vietnam Eastern Asia 83.00
159 China South Central Asia 86.75
160 Nepal Caribean 87.00
161 Cuba Northern Africa 88.75
162 Libya South East Asia 88.83
163 Myanmar South Central Asia 89.17
164 Iran South Central asia 93.50
165 Turkmenistan Eastern Africa 99.75
166 Eritrea Eastern Asia 109
167 North Korea
Source: Reporters Without Borders
3.Third World Countries in terms of their Human Development:
The Human development index (HDI) is published annually by the UN.
It measures the average achievements in a country in three basic dimensions of human development i.e. i) A long and healthy life, ii) Knowledge and iii) a decent standard of living.
The list of 20 countries with the lowest Human Development index (HDI),
Sl. Country Life Expect. Adult Comb.Gross GDP Life Edn
At Birth Illeteracy Enrolment (PPPUS$) exp.ind. HDI ndx
157 Senegal 52.7 /39.3/ 38/ 1,580/ 0.46/ 0.437/ o.39
158 Timer Liste 49.3/ 58.6/ 75/ .... /0.41/ 0.436/ .64
159 Rwanda 38.9 /69.2 /53 /1,270 /0.23 /0.431 /0.64
160 Guinea 48.9/ 41.0/ 29 /2,100/ 0.40/ 0.425/ 0.37
161 Benin 50.7 /39.8/ 52/ 1,o70/ 0.43/ 0.421/ 0.44
162 Tanjania43.5 /77.1 31 /580 /0.31 /o.407 /0.62
D'Ivoite 41,2/ 49.7/ 42/ 1,520/0.27/0.399/ 0/47
166. Angola /40.1/42.0/30 /2,130 0.25/0.381/ o.38
167. Chad /44.7/ 45.8/ 35/1,020/ 0,33/0.379/0.42





172. Guinea-Bissau45.2/39.6/37/710/0.340.350/0.39


174. Mali48.5/19.0/26/930/0.39/0.326/0.21

175.Burkina Faso45.8/12.8/22/1,100/0.35/0.302/0.16

176. Niger46.0/17.1/19/800/0.35/0.292/0.18

Sierra Leone34.3/36.0/45/ 520/0.160.273/0.39

Source:UNHuman Development Report, 2004

4. Third World in terms of poverty;
The least Developed Country (LDC) are a group of countries that have been identified by the UN as "least Developed". United Nations used the following three criteriafor the identification of the LDCs,

!. a low income estimate of the gross national income (GNI) per capita,

2. Their weak humanassets and

3. Their high degree of economic vulnerability.

There are 50 countries listed in the UN s comparative analysis of poverty.34 Africancountries, 10 Asian countries, 5 Pacific Island nations and one Cribeannation.

5. In terms of their gross national income (GNI).

Thursday, December 18, 2008

Alternative views of 3rd. world.

The term "Third World" is not universally accepted. Some prefer other terms such as - Global south, The South, non-industrial Countries, Developing Countries, under-developed Countries, undeveloped countries, and so on. The term third world is the one most widely used in the media today, but no one term can describe all less developed countries accurately.
In fact, even in America, there are regions inhabited by indigeneous people with primary living condition and in India there are four persons whose wealth is amongst the ten richest persons in the world.
The ambiguities associated with the term third world are manifold. One complication is the role of oppressed peoples outside the three continents.The Africans and the tribals living in America will not have any place within the defined models of third world. In addition ethnocentrism may be detected in assigning first place to the countries and that the rank ahead of the others according to economic and technological yardstick.
The third world would be placed in the first position if the critaria were the chronology of the human civilisation. In that case Africa (Egypt) , India and China would have higher ranks.
An influential commission headed by Willy Brandt, former Chancellor of the Federal republic of Germany, preferred a dichotomy as indicated by the title of its report, North-South: A programme for survival (Cambridge, Mass.., 1980). This distinction, in between two hemispheres, a less developed country i.e. Greenland, exists in the north where as there are developed countries i.e. Australia and NewZealand in the south.
Theorists such as Immanuel Wallerstein prefers to coin the term " a single world" with Capitalist economy.
Another idea is that the divisions are not rigid, rather the components forming the sections are changing as the disintegration of the second world.

Wednesday, December 17, 2008

Four in One

The term Fourth World first came into use in 1974 with the publication of Shuswap Chief George Manuel's THE WORLD IN INDIAN REALITY ( Amazon link to the book), the term refers to nations Cultural entities, ethnic groups) of indigen living within or across state boundaries (nations state). This is in reference to American Indians.
The use of the term three worlds is outdated. Now some people say there are four world's in this world,
1. First World: The bloc of emocratic industrial developed countries within the American influence.
2. The Eastern Bloc: consists of Communist -socialist states under the influence of USSR,
3. The remaining three quarters of the world's population , aligned to neither of the above two blocs,
4. The term "Fourth World", coined in the early 1970's by Shuswap Chief George Manuel, refers to widely unknown nations (cultural entities) of indegeneous people.
N.B. Some of the very poorest countries, espcially in Africa, the countries having no indusrialisation and with almost agrarian status and no hope of competing world market are sometimes termed as Fourth World.

Tuesday, December 16, 2008

Worlds within the World

Blue:!st.World, Red: 2nd.World, Green: 3rd. World.

The concept of Worlds within the world came up for discussion in 1950's after the World War II when large number of countries became independent from the clutches of their exploiters. The three world model was first used by the geographer Ingolf Vogeler.
The First World are the developed, capitalist, industrial countries, roughly a Bloc of countries aligned to the United States after World WarII, with more or less common political and economic interests. These countries , denoted by Blue colour in the above world map, are US, Canada, Western Europe, Japan, Singapore, Taiwan, Austrlia, NewZealand.
The Second World was the Communist world led by the USSR. Though, at present, there is no official second world still there are countries like China, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia and Cuba run by the communist Government. The countries denoted by red in the map were the second world.
The Third World, the technologically less advanced, uderdeveloped or developing nations,
denoted by green colour in the map are the nations of Asia, Africa, Ocenia and Latin America. These nations are Characterized as poor and dependent on the economies of the rich countries. The expression third world was used at the 1955 conference of Afro-Asian countries held in Bundung, Indonesia. In 1956 a group of social scientiss assciated with Sauvy's National Institute of Demographic studies, in Paris, published a book, Le Tiers-Monde. three years later, the French Econmist Francois Perroux launched a new journal on problems of underdeveloped countries. the term was frequently used in the French media to tefer to the underveveloped countries of Asia, Africa, Ocenia and Latin America.

Monday, December 15, 2008

Bundung Conference (Asian-African Conference),1955

The Bundung Conference, held in the Capital city of Java in Indonesia on 18 April 1955 and attended by historical leaders like Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai, Indian Prime Minister Jawahral Nehru, Egyptian President Abdul Nasser and King Norodom Sihanouk of Cambodia at the invitation of President Soekarno, was a land mark in the history of united non-alignment movement of the Third World Countries of the World. It was then dubbed as "the greatest gathering of all times."This historic conference of Bundung of 1955, in Indonesia, will be remembered as the first step to the non- aligned movement (NAM) of the decolonized peoples of Asia and Africa.
NAM is an organisation of more than 100 states which do not consider themselves aligned to any major power and it meets at summit level once in every three years.
As President Hu Jintao of China and President APJ Abdul Kalam of India make the historic trip, joined by an impressive group of Third World leaders, Bundung holds significance today for four reasons from an Asian perspective not only for similarities with 1955 but also for the diffrences.
1. It hoisted the flag of the Afro-Asian countries,
2. Asia with its strong economic bases stands at the centre of Afro-Asian Countries,
Economic growth of India nad China only 4 percent each of the world economy, but today, their combined economies amount to 20 percent.
China's economic growth for the last 15 years has been above 8 p.c. whereas that of india is 7 p.c.
3. Bundung in 2005 was again celebrated as the "rise of the decolonised world"
4. Lastly as South-south cooperation develops for the last 50 years with the 5 Asian Countries, like China, India, Indonesia, Vietnam and Pakistan, as leaders to fulfil the Asiand dreams.
Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh will attend 50th. anniversary.

Sunday, December 14, 2008

Colonialism - capitalism - Imperialism

Actually speaking colonialism was developed in the age of feudalistic society and was extended upto the stage of imperialism, by passing the first stage of capitalism. Wage labour is the basis of capitalistic society. Though wage labour existed under all antagonistic social system but only in the last stage its exploitation made the basis of Capitalistic Society. "Without wage labour," Marx said, there is no production of surplus value.... without production of surplus value there is no Capitalistic production and no Capital, hence no Capitalist. Engales pointed out, "through the history of early Capitalism purely proletarian economic battles merged into a common struggle of the popular masses against feudalism and reaction. In every great bourgeois movement , there were independent outbursts of that class which was the forerunner , more or less developed, of the modern proletariat". In fact working class developed itself as a class after the formation of industrial proletariat and that took place after the Industrial Revolution i.e., at the end of eighteenth century. Marx wrote in his Manifesto of the Communist Party that the modern industry had converted the little workshop of the patriarchal master into the great factory of the industrial capitalist. From the earlier stage of the society, it was divided into two classes, oppressor and oppressed, Marx said in his Manifesto that the bourgeoisie wherever it had got the upper hand, had put an end to all feudal, patriarchal, idyllic relations.It had pitilessly torn assunder the motley feudal ties that bound man to his natural "superiors", and had left remaining no other nexus between man and man than naked self interest, than callous "cash payment."It had drowned the most heavenly ecstasies of religious fervour , of chivalrous enthusiasm, of philistine sentimentalism, in the icy water of egotistical caculation.
So far in the society man reigned over man, now capital was destined to reign over human being.
The process of liquidation of economic and political relations based on the oppression of colonial and dependent countries by the superior powers gradually faced a crisis when Capitalism ascended to its highest form which Lenin said Imperialism , the highest stage of Capitalism, at the end of the nineteenth century. At this stage many economists and philosophers tried to explain the global phenomenon which led to the FIRST WORLD WAR in 1914-1918. Lenin, in Zurich, in the spring of 1916 studied a book, Imperialism- a study written by J.A.Hobson in 1902, discussed thouroghly about the growth of capitalism and forecasted its fate. Though, uptil now, Lenin's forecast could not find a road to success still capitalism did not get rid of its crisis even after facing two World war within a very small span of time.
The system of antagonistic relations between imperialist powers and the peoples of the economically less developed countriesenslaved by these powers.The largest colonial empires , those of Great Britain, France, Belgiumand other countries, emerged as a result of fierce colonial wars. According to Lenin's definition of imperialism , three forms of colonial enslvement may be identified : 1. the colonies or the countries exploited by a metropolis and dependent on it poltically or economically, 2. the semi-colonies or the countries which enjoy a formal political independence but are tied up by inequitable international treaties and are explained in the same way as the formal colonies, e.g. countries of Latin America,3. dependent countries or the states enslaved and exploited by economic methods of monopoly capital domination.
These forms of colonial oppression provides the imperialist powers markets for raw materials, centres for capital investment, military strategic strongholds and reserves for the reinforcements of their army.

Saturday, December 13, 2008


The colonialism is defined as the extension of a nation's sovereignty over territory beyond its borders by the establishment of either settler or exploitation colonies in which indigeneous populations are ruled, displaced, or exterminated. Colonizing nations generally dominate the resources, labour and markets of the colonial territory, and may also impose socio-cultural-religious and linguistic structures on the indigeneous population. It is essentially a system of irect political, economic and cultural intervention and hegemonyby a powerful country on a weaker one. Though the word colonialism is often used interchangeably with imperialism, the latter is sometimes used more broadly as it covers control exercised informally ( via influence) as well as formal military control or economic leverage.
The term colonialism may also be used to refer to an ideology or a set of beliefs used to legitimize or promote this system. Colonialism was often based on the ethnocentric belief that the morals and values of the colonizer were superior to those of the colonized- some observers link such beliefs to racism and pseudo-scintific theories dating from the 18th. to the 19th. centuries. In the western worl, this led to a form of proto-social Darwinism that placed white people at the top of the animal kingdom, naturally in charge of dominating non-European aboriginal populations.(From Wikipedia)
The discussion on colonialism, at this stage, is done in two ways ;

1. Types of Colonies,From about 750 B.C. the Greeks began 250 years of expansion , settling colonies in all directions. The other examples range from large empire like the Roman empire, the Arab Empire, the Mongol Empire, the Ottoman Empire.

The Roman Empire under Trajan in 117 A.D.

The expansion of the Arab Empire under the Umayyads

The Mongol empire and its successorkhanates

Conquest of the Ottoman empire

World map of Colonialismin 1800

the map of the world in 1900

World map of colonisation at the end of the Second
World War in 1945

World Colonisation in 1492-2008

Friday, December 12, 2008

History of the United States

US history in a nutshell:
1. Pre-colonial America: Archeological as well as geological evidence suggests that the present day United States was originally populated by people migrated from Asia via the Bering land bridge since 20,000 years ago. these were the original native American prior to the arrival of European explorers. Agrigulture was independently developed in the eastern US as early as 2500 B.C..
the first European contact with the Americans was with the Vikings in the year 1000. Leif Erikson established a short lived settlement called Vinlandin present day Newfoundland.It was about 500 years for the americans to get actual contact with the Americans after the discovery of America by Columbus in 1492.
After a period of exploration by various European countries - Dutch, Spanish, English, French, Swedish, and Portuguese settlements were established. Columbus was the first European to set foot Puerrto Rico in 1943 in US territory.
The short outlines of the history is as follows
2. Colonial America
i) Spanish Exploration and settlement (1493 - )
ii) French Colonization ( 1564 - 1803 )
iii) English/ British Colonial America (1585 - 1776 )
3. Formation of the United Sates of America (1776- 1789)
The territory of the newly formed USA,
much smaller than it is today.

4. Westward expansion (1789 - 1849)
Territorial expansion of the United states, omitting
Oregon and other claims.

5. Civil War Era (1849 - 1865)
The union : blue, yellow, grey;
The confederacy; brown

6. Reconstruction and the Rise of Industrialisation (1865 - 1918)
7. Post World War I 1nd the Great Depression (1918 - 1940)
8. World War II (1940 - 1945)
i) Battle against Germany,
ii) Battle aganst Japan .
9. Cold war and the Civil Rights Movement (1945 - 1964)
10. Cold War (1964 - 1980
11. End of the Cold War (1980 - 1988)
12. 1988 onwards---

Thursday, December 11, 2008

History of the creation of 3rd World countries

After the exploration of the whole world at about the end of fifteenth century, the whole world was divided into two discrete regions, not all at a time,
1. a list of dominant sovereign states known as the Imperialist world and
2. the other is their servient territories.
Imperialist states were mainly confined to,
1. Non-European Powers such as,
i) United States, ii) Argentina, iii) Australia, iv) Brazil, v) Chile, vi) China, vii) Indonesia, viii) Japan, ix) Ottoman Egypt, x) New Zealand, xi) South Africa,
2. European dominant Powers consisting of,
i) Austria, ii) Belgium, iii) British empire, iv) Denmark, v) Finland, vi)France, vii) Germany
viii) Greece, ix) Iceland, x) Italy, xi) Malta, xii) Monaco, xiii) Netherlands, Xiv) noway,
xv) Ottoman Empire / Turkey, xvi) Polish, xvii) Portugal, xviii) Russia, xix) Spain,
xx) Sweden.
A more close study reveals that United States occupied the position of the head of the States of Non-European countries and the British Empire that of the European states. Moreover United States controlled over the maximum no. of States at that time within the Non-European States i.e. twenty three and the British Empire ruled over 242 regions i.e. the maximum area controlled by an Imperialist Power in the History of the World.

Origins of the British Empire( 1497- 1997)wre laid at a time before Britain existed as a single political entity, when England and Scotland had separate kingdoms. In 1496, King Henry VII of England, following the successes of Portugal and Spain in overseas exploration, commissioned John Cabot to lead a voyage to discover a route to Asia via North Atlantic. The great British Empire ended in 1997, the United Kingdom's last major overseas territory, Hong Kong, became a special Adminstrative Region of the People's Republic of China under the terms of the Sino-British Joint Declaration agreed some thirteen years ago.

Monday, December 8, 2008


The change of the face of the world is much more faster than that was at the time of B.C. for the following reasons :
1. Great Exploration,
2. Increase of Polpulation and
3. Scientific discovery.
1. Great Exploration:
The most important exploration was made by Alexander the Great in 330 - 323 B.C. when accompanied by land surveyors and scribes to record details of the countries through which he passed and he marched his armies through Persia to India and like true explorer, return by a different route. The second and first century B.C. the Romans, in the expansion of their Empire, penetrated up the Nile as far as the Baltic and westward across Europe. Westward expansion wasextendedby Norsemen, first by their discovery of their Iceland about 867 A.D. and finally by their main land to north America about four years late.
At about the same time Arabs were voyaging far a fiel in the Indian Ocean, ranging from Spain to China and as far as Madagascar.Their greatest travellor was Ibn Batuta who visited every muslim country in a remarkable series of journeys and lasted about 30 yrs. In the same period envoys were sent by the Pope to the great Khan of Mongol Empire and thus opened up the way for the polos , father and son. Meanwhile shipbuilding and navigation in Europe had considerably advanced and more extended voyages were possible. By 1487 A.D. he had coasted down Africaand in that year Cape of Good Hope was rounded by Bartholomew Diaz. Thus opened the Great age of Discovery and in thirty years all the unknown oceans were crossed. Columbus reaching America, Vasco da Gama reaching India in 1498 and Magalansailingacross the Pacific and round the whole world in1521.

2. Increase of population:

In the middle of the 1800's the world's population was estimated to 1,000 million; by mid 1920's, less than a century later, the population had doubled. After carefully considering their rate birth, materna and infant mortality and the expectation of life in every country, the United Nation's forecast was that by 2000 A.D., the figure would have to increase to over 6,000 million and might have to reach 7,000 million. This expansion might be shown in the form of an inverted pyramid.It could also been shown that the population of the western hemisphere and Australia had steadily increased since 1900. The population of China and Asia, with exception of Russia and japan, showed a much more rapid expansion. It might be noted that improved food production and improved medical facilities were largely responsible for this expansion. As a result people from Europe and Asia had migrate to the other parts of the world, specially to Africa an America for their shelter and food which caused a change in the socio-economic pattern of the respective places. A statistics given below may show the picture;

Group I Group II Group III GroupIV
Year Country Pop. in Mill. Country Pop. in Mill . Country Pop in Mill. country pop. in mill.

High Density-Moderate Growth/ High density rapi growth/ Low density Mod. GROwth/ Low density Rapid growth

japan/Europe/USSR Ltin Am./Asia North-South Am./Austr./USSR Amr./MidleEast/Pacific

1960 520 1,465 458 473

2000 720 2,560 770 1,220

(United nations Estimate)

3. Scientific Discovery:
A popular saying is " necessity is the mother of invention". So discoveries goes in the direction of the human needs.A close study of the discoveries of sciences in the fields of Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, Biology and Philosophyreveals thatthey are confined mainly on two periods- one, in the neighbourhood of the growth of agriculture, the other in that of the growth of industry i.e. capitalism.
1. Neighbourhood of the growth of agrculture
i) Pythagorus--680-620 B.c.
ii) Confucious-- 651-479 B.C.
iii) Socrates-- 470- 399 B.C.
iv) Plato -- 427-347 B.C.
v) Aristotle-- 384-322 B.C.
vi) Epicurus -- 341-27 B.C.
vii) Euclid -- 323-233 B.C.
viii) Archimedes --287-212 B.C.
2. Neighbourhood of growth of industry i.e. Capitalism,
i) Descartes -- 1596-1650 A.D.
ii) Newton-- 1642-1727 ,,
iii)Leibnitz -- 1646-1715 ,,
iv) Voltair -- 1694-1776 ,,
v) Adam Smith-1723-1770 ,,
vi) Kant -- 1724-1804 ,,
vii) Edmund Burke 1729-1797 ,,
viii) James Watt -- 1736-1890 ,,
( Discovery of Steam Engine-1770)
ix)Dalton -- 1766-1844 A.D.
x) Feuerbach-- 1804-1872 A.D.
xi) Karl Marx -- 1818-1883 A.D.
Sunday, December 7, 2008

Socio-Economic Study of 3rd. World countries
Introduction :By 3rd World we mean a subset of the set of countries of the world which donot belong to the First World i.e. Capitalist world or Second World i.e. Communist world.The 3rd.worl has its own identityof its social, cultural, economic, political and geographical perspectives.This world was created after the World war II in the age of Cold war (1945 - 1989 ).The term 3rd world was first used in Aug. 1952 by the Economist and DemographerAlfred Sauvyin an article published in the French Magazine L'Observateur to refer the newly independent Developing or Underdeveloped countries of Africa, Asia, Ocenia, and Latin America.He referred 3rd.worldas a reference to the Tiers Etat, the third estate, the commoners of Francebefore and during the french revolution, opposed to the first and the second Estate. Like the third estae , wrote Sauvy, the third worl has nothing and wants have something, implying that the 3rd.World is exploited (as the third estate) and that its destiny is revolutionary.Moreover it conveyed the second concept of political non-alignment with either the the Capitalist , NATO, bloc or the industrial communist bloc.The face of the World is continually changing since ancient times in colour, design and manifestations.In ancient times the course of civilisation can be traced in four main geographical areas - in Egypt and Mesopotamia (near east), in India (Middle east), in China (far east) and in Europe begining with Greece and Rome.The progress of civilisation is marked by man's increasing control over nature by applied Mathematics and Sciences which Marx pointedout as the development of productive forces and productive relations. But an area of influence was spread by a factor called Religion such as Budhism, Confucianism, Christianity, and Islam which spread beyond their countries of origine. Another term known as Imperialism occupied regions more forcibly than earlier times. The phenomenon , Imperialism, was originally used in invective against the expansionist policy of Napoleon I (1769 - 1821) and a little later against the policy of Britainsince 16th. century. Thogh Alexader the Great , King of Macedon (356 - 323 B.C.) extented his area of influence upto India after fighting continuously for eight years . It is clear that before the october revolution (1017) of russia there were three worlds. i.e.) i) world of Conqueror, ii) World of conquered and iii) the world un-conquered.
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Member Asiatic Society, Formerly :Prof. and hd. of the dept. of math., calcutta univ.,col. writer of a Beng. weekly in kolkata.Gen. Secy. ALL INDIA YOUTH LEAGUE, W.B.unit, Secy. Beng. School of Math., Conv. Indian School of Social Sciences, Cal., etc View my complete profile