Monday, December 8, 2008


The change of the face of the world is much more faster than that was at the time of B.C. for the following reasons :
1. Great Exploration,
2. Increase of Polpulation and
3. Scientific discovery.
1. Great Exploration:
The most important exploration was made by Alexander the Great in 330 - 323 B.C. when accompanied by land surveyors and scribes to record details of the countries through which he passed and he marched his armies through Persia to India and like true explorer, return by a different route. The second and first century B.C. the Romans, in the expansion of their Empire, penetrated up the Nile as far as the Baltic and westward across Europe. Westward expansion wasextendedby Norsemen, first by their discovery of their Iceland about 867 A.D. and finally by their main land to north America about four years late.
At about the same time Arabs were voyaging far a fiel in the Indian Ocean, ranging from Spain to China and as far as Madagascar.Their greatest travellor was Ibn Batuta who visited every muslim country in a remarkable series of journeys and lasted about 30 yrs. In the same period envoys were sent by the Pope to the great Khan of Mongol Empire and thus opened up the way for the polos , father and son. Meanwhile shipbuilding and navigation in Europe had considerably advanced and more extended voyages were possible. By 1487 A.D. he had coasted down Africaand in that year Cape of Good Hope was rounded by Bartholomew Diaz. Thus opened the Great age of Discovery and in thirty years all the unknown oceans were crossed. Columbus reaching America, Vasco da Gama reaching India in 1498 and Magalansailingacross the Pacific and round the whole world in1521.

2. Increase of population:

In the middle of the 1800's the world's population was estimated to 1,000 million; by mid 1920's, less than a century later, the population had doubled. After carefully considering their rate birth, materna and infant mortality and the expectation of life in every country, the United Nation's forecast was that by 2000 A.D., the figure would have to increase to over 6,000 million and might have to reach 7,000 million. This expansion might be shown in the form of an inverted pyramid.It could also been shown that the population of the western hemisphere and Australia had steadily increased since 1900. The population of China and Asia, with exception of Russia and japan, showed a much more rapid expansion. It might be noted that improved food production and improved medical facilities were largely responsible for this expansion. As a result people from Europe and Asia had migrate to the other parts of the world, specially to Africa an America for their shelter and food which caused a change in the socio-economic pattern of the respective places. A statistics given below may show the picture;

Group I Group II Group III GroupIV
Year Country Pop. in Mill. Country Pop. in Mill . Country Pop in Mill. country pop. in mill.

High Density-Moderate Growth/ High density rapi growth/ Low density Mod. GROwth/ Low density Rapid growth

japan/Europe/USSR Ltin Am./Asia North-South Am./Austr./USSR Amr./MidleEast/Pacific

1960 520 1,465 458 473

2000 720 2,560 770 1,220

(United nations Estimate)

3. Scientific Discovery:
A popular saying is " necessity is the mother of invention". So discoveries goes in the direction of the human needs.A close study of the discoveries of sciences in the fields of Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, Biology and Philosophyreveals thatthey are confined mainly on two periods- one, in the neighbourhood of the growth of agriculture, the other in that of the growth of industry i.e. capitalism.
1. Neighbourhood of the growth of agrculture
i) Pythagorus--680-620 B.c.
ii) Confucious-- 651-479 B.C.
iii) Socrates-- 470- 399 B.C.
iv) Plato -- 427-347 B.C.
v) Aristotle-- 384-322 B.C.
vi) Epicurus -- 341-27 B.C.
vii) Euclid -- 323-233 B.C.
viii) Archimedes --287-212 B.C.
2. Neighbourhood of growth of industry i.e. Capitalism,
i) Descartes -- 1596-1650 A.D.
ii) Newton-- 1642-1727 ,,
iii)Leibnitz -- 1646-1715 ,,
iv) Voltair -- 1694-1776 ,,
v) Adam Smith-1723-1770 ,,
vi) Kant -- 1724-1804 ,,
vii) Edmund Burke 1729-1797 ,,
viii) James Watt -- 1736-1890 ,,
( Discovery of Steam Engine-1770)
ix)Dalton -- 1766-1844 A.D.
x) Feuerbach-- 1804-1872 A.D.
xi) Karl Marx -- 1818-1883 A.D.

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