Wednesday, December 31, 2008

Ethiopia (CONTINUED)

Human settlement in Ethiopia dates back to prehistoric times. Fossilised remains of the earliest ancestors to human species, discovered in Ethiopia, have been assigned dates as long ago as 5.9 million years . Together with Eritrea and southeastern part of the Red Sea coast of sudan (Beja Netjeru, meaning land of the Gods), whose first mention dates to the twentyfifth century BC.
History of Ethiopia
1. Evolution of hominids
2. Prehistory
3. Punt ( 3rd. millionum BC - 1st. m. BC)
4. D'mt ( 8th. century BC - 7th. century BC)
5. Proto - Aksum (1st c. BC - 10thc. AD)
6. Aksum ( 1st. c. BC - 10th. c. BC)
7. Gudit ( 10th. c. AD) : Dark ages of Ethiopia
8. Zagwe Dynasty (10th. or 11th. c. - 1268)
9. First Solomonic Period (1270 - 1527)
10. Invasion of Gragu ( 1527 - 1543)
11. Great Oromo migration ( 1543 - 16th. c.)
12. Ottoman Invasion (1557 - 17th. c. )
13. Gondarine Dynasty (1606 - 1755)
14. Zemene Mesafint ( 1755 -- 1855)
15. Modernization ( 1855 - 1936)
16. Second Italo-Abysinium War ( 1935 - 1936)
17. Italian East Africa (1936 - 1941)
18. East African campaign (World War II - 1941)
19. Italian guerrila War ( 1941 - 1943)
20. Second modernisation ( 1941 _ 1974 )
21. Eritrean War of Independence (1961 - 1991 )
22. Ethiopian Civil War ( 1974 - 1991) ; Derg Period
23. Biginning of Communist gov., Workers Party of Etiopia,WPE.
24. Erirean - Ethiopian War (1998 - 2000)
25. Ogaden conflict (2007 -2008)
The first records of Ethiopia proper come from Egyptian traders from about 3000 BC, who refer to lands of south of Nubia or Cush as punt or Yam. The first known voyage to Punt occured in the 25th. century BC under the reign of Pharao. the famous expedition was during the reign of Queen Hatshepsutaround 1495 BC .
The twentififth Dynasty of Egypt (roughly 743 BC - 656 BC)was actually an Ethiopian dynasty. during this period Ethiopia ruled Egypt . Their most accomplished pharao during this time was Taharqa who wore two snakes on his crown signifying sovereignty of both Egypt and Ethiopia
this Dynasty was known as D'mt dynasty..

The ruins of the temple at Yeha dates to the
7th. or 8th. c. BC.
The D'mt kingdom developed irrigation schemes, used ploughs, grew millet, and even made iron tools and weapons.
In the early churches of Ethiopia indicates that much of the country once embraced Jewish beliefs and cultures as part of its religious system influenced by Egypt or trade links along the red sea coast. The temple at Yeha (in Tygray Province) , said to be erected in the 6th. centuryBC, is an architecttural copy of other Jewish temples found in Israel.
After the fall of D'mt dynasty in the 4th. c. BC. the plateau came to be dominated by smaller successor kingdoms, until the rise of one of these kingdoms during the first century BC , the Aksumite Kingdom, ancestor of medieval and modern Ethiopia, was able to reunite the area. They established the bases on the northern highlands of Ethiopian plateau and from there expaned southward.The persian religious figure Mani listed Aksum with Rome, Persia and China as one of the four great powers of the time. At this time Christanity was proclimed the official state religion. The name of Ethiopia appears in the Old testament .The rulers claimed to dominate most of modern Yemen and some of southern Saudi Arabia just across the red sea , as well as controlled southern Egypt, northern Sudan, northern Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti and northern Somalia.

King Ezana's Stele in Axum
The end the Aksumite Kingdom is as much of a mystery as its beginning. Lacking a detailed history, the kingdom's fall has been attributed to a persistent drought, overgrazing, plague, a shift in trade routes that reduced the importance of the Red Sea or a combination of these factors. The muslim historian Abu Ja'far al-Khwarazmias stating that the capital of the kingdom of Habas was Jarma.

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