Soon Le Duan became the acting 1st secretary replacing Truoung. Duan urged military line, increased assistance to insurgency, assassinated govt officials, but maintained status qua to schholteachers, health workers and agricultural officers.According to an estimate he assassinated 20 p.c. of South vietnam's village chiefs by 1958. In 1959, the North's Central Committee issued a secret circular authrizing an armed struggle. In may the South Vietnam Govt enacted a law which made political violence a punishable by death and property confiscated. Observing the increasing unpopularity of the Diem Govt. Hanoi created a National Liberation Front.At that time American administrator Mcnamara and other were posted in Vietnam. The communists got a popular support to replace Diem's Govt and reunify the country.
Sunday, June 27, 2010
Diem Era, 1955-1963 The Domino Theory (which said that if one country fell to Communist forces, then all of thew surrounding countries would follow) was first proposed as policy by the Eisenhower administrationJohn F Kennedy, then a US senator, said in a speech to the American Friends of Vietnam;"Burma,Thiland,India, Japan, the Philipines and obiously Laos and Cambodiawere among those whose security would be threatened if he Red Tide of Communism overflowed into Vietnam.
Diem, a devout Roman Catholic, was fervently anti-Communist, nationalist and socially conservative, narrow and extremist nationalism coupled with autocracy and nepotism.He helped the French rule in Vietnam.
Beginning in the summer of 1955, he launched "the denounce he Communists" campaign during which the communist andother anti-government elementswere arrested, imprisoned, tortured or executed.Diem instituted a policy of death penaltyagainst any activity deemed communist in aug 1956. Opponents were labeled Viet Cong (Vietnamese Communists) by the regime to degrade their nationalist credentials.As a measure of the political repression , about 12,000 suspected opponents of Diem were killed in the year 1955-1957 and by the end of 1958an estimated 40,000 political prisoners had been jailed.
In May, Diem undertook a ten-day state visit to the US, where Eisenhower assured continued support to Diem.Robert Macnamara wrote that the new Americans patrons were comletely ignorant of the Vietnamese culture.
"class enemies " were executed. In 1056, the communist party's leaders of Hanoi admitted to excesses in implementing this program and restored a large amount of the land to the original owners.
In the South, former Emperor Bao Dai's State of Viernam operated , with Ngo Dinh Dien as his primeminister . In June 1955, Diem announced that election would not be held. South Vietnam had rejected the agreement from the beginningand was therefore not bound by it., he said "how can we expect free election to be held in Communist north.Diem asked President Eisenhower echoed seniorUS experts when he wrote that , in 1954, 80 p.c. of the population would have voted for communist Ho Chi Minh, over Emperir Bao Dai.
In April=June 1955, Diem cleared the decks of any political oppositions in the south by launching militry operations
On 26, oct 1955, Diem declared the new Republic of Vietnamwith himself as president.
Saturday, June 26, 2010
US carriers sailed to the Gulf of Tonkin, and reconnaissance fights over Dien Bien Phu were conducted during the negotiations. According to Richard Nixon the plan involved the Joint chiefs of Staff drawing up plans to use three small tactical nuclear weapons in support of the French. Vice-president Nixon , a so called hawk on Vietnam , suggested that the US might have to "put American boys in." President Eisenhower made American participation contingent on British support, but London was opposed. In the end, convinced that the political risks outweighed the possble benefits, Eisenhower decided against the intervention.The Viet Minh received crucial support from the Soviet Union and PRC. PRC support in the Border Campaign of 1950 allowed supplies to come from PRC into Vietnam. Throughout the conflict, US intelligence estimates remained skeptical of French chances of success. The Battle of Dien Bien Phu marked the end of French involvemnnet in Indochina. The Viet Minh and their merculiar commander Vo Nguyen Giap handed the French a stunning military defeat, and on May 7, 1954, the French Union garrison surrendered. At the Geneva conference the French negotialted a ceasefire agreement with the Viet Minh. Independence was granted to Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam.
Vietnam was temporarily partitioned at the 17th parallel, and under the terms of the Geneva Convention, civilians were to be given 6he opportunity to freely move between the two provisional States for 300-day period. Elections throughout the country were to be held in 1956, to establish a unified govt.About 1 millin northerners, mainly minority Catholics fled south , fearing persewcution by the Communists.
In addition to the catholics fkowing through the south from the north upto 130,000, Revolutionary Regroupees went north for the regroupment expecting to return to the south within 2years. The last French soldiers were to leave Vietnam in April 1956. The PRC comleted their withdrawal from North vietnam at around the same time.Around 52,000 Vietnamese civilians moved from south to north.
Friday, June 25, 2010
History of Vietnam War: Vietnam was ruled by China during 207 BC until 938 when Vietnam regained its Independence Emperor Tran Nhan Tong later diplomatically submitted Vietnam to a tributary of the Yuan to avoid further conflicts.The independent period temporarily was in the middle to late 19th century, when the country was colonized by France. During WW II, Imperial Japan expelled the French to occupy Vietnem though they retained French administrators during their occupation. After the war when the allied forces came as a victorious ally, it was agreed that Indochina was a part of France but after the First Indochina War, Geneva accords partitioned the country in two with a promise of democratic election to reunite the country. But the United States did not want the expansion of communism in this region of Indochina and stood in the way of reunification of Vietnam. This was the cause of Vietnam War.Exit of the French, 1950-54;
In Jan 1950, the Communist nations , led by the People's Republic of China (PRC), recognized the Viet Minh's Democratic Republic of Vietnamas and the Govt of Vietnam. Whereas the Non-communist nations recognized the French-Backed State of Vietnam in Saigon led by former Emperor Bao Dai in the following months.The outbreak of the Korean War in June 1950 convinced many Washington policy makers that the war in Indochina was an example of communist expansionism directed by the Kremlin.
PRC military advisors began assisting the Viet Minh in July 1950. PRC weapons, expertise and laborers transformed the Viet Minh from a guerrilla force into a regular army. In Sept 1950, the US created a military Assistance and Advisory Advisory Group (MAAG) to screen French request for aid, advise on strategy , and train Vietnamese soldiers. By 1954, the US had supplied 300,000 small arms and spent US $ 1 bilion in supprot of the French military effort and was shouldering 80 p.c. of the cost of the war.
There were also talks between the French and Americans in which the possible use of three tactical nuclear weapons was considered , though how seriously this was considered were even now vague and contradictory. One version of the plan for the proposed OperationVulture envisioneed sending 60B-29s from US bases in the region , supported by as many as 150 fighters launched from US Seventh Fleet carriers, to bomb Viet Minh commander Vo Nguyen Giap's positions. Admiral Arthur W. Radford, Chairman of the US Joint Chiefs of Staff, gave this nuclear strike, as could carrier aircraft from the Seventh Fleet.
Wednesday, June 23, 2010
The war exacted a huge human cost in terms of fatalities including 3 to 4 million Vietnamese from both sides, 1.5 to 2 million Laotians and Cambodians , and 58,159 US soldiers.
Monday, June 21, 2010
The following day, peace talks on Indochina began in Geneva, attended by DRV, Associated State of Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, France , Britain, China, the Soviet Union, and the United States. In July a compromise agreement was reached cosisting of two documents, a ceaase fire and a final declaration. The ceasefire agreement, which was signed only by France and theDRV, established a provisional military demarcation line at about the 17 degree N parallel and required the regroupment of all French military forces south of that line and of all Viet minh military forces north of the line. A demilitarized zone (DMZ), no more than five kms wide, was established on either side of the demarcation line.The cease fire agreement also provided for a 300-day period, during which all civillians were free to move from one zone to the other, and an international Control Commission , consisting of Canada, India,and Poland, to supervise the ceasefire. The final declaration was endorsed through recorded oral assent by the DRV, France, Britain, China, and the Soviet Union. It provided for the holding of national elections in July 1956, under he supervision of the of the International Control Commission, and stated that the military demarcation line was provisional and "should not in any way be interpreted as constituting a political territorial boundary." Both the United States and the Associated State of Vietnam, which France had recognized on June 4, as a fully independent and sovereign statte," refused to approve the final declaration and submitted separate declarations stating their reservations.
Sunday, June 20, 2010
The newly appointed commander of French forces in Vietnam, Henry Navarre, decided soon after his arrival in Vietnam that it was essential to halt a Viet Minh offensive underway in neighbouring Laos. To do so , navarre believed that it was necessary for the French to capture and hold the town of Dien Bien Phu, sixteen kms from the Laotian border. For the Viet Minh, control of Dien Bien Phu was an importanrt link in the supply route from China. In Nov 1953, the French occuppied the town with paratroop battalions and began reinforcing it with units from the French military post at nearby Lai Chau.
the stage of Dien Bien Phu began on March 13, by which time the Viet Minh had concentrated nearly 50,000 regular troops , 55,000 support troops, and almost 1,00,000 transport workers in the area. Chinese aid, consisting mainly of ammunition, petroleum, and some large artillery pieces carried a distance of 350 kms from the Chinese border, reached 1,500 tons per month by early 1954. The French garrison 15,000, which depended on supply by air, was cut off by March 27, when the Viet Minh artillery succeeded in making the airfield unusable. An elaborate system of tunnels dug in the mountain sides enabled the Viet Minh to protect its artillery pieces by continually moving them to prevent discovery . Several hundred kms of trenches permitted the attackers to move progressively closer to the French encampment . In the final battle , human wave assaults used to take the perimeter defenses, which yielded defensive guns that were then turned on the main encampment . The French garrison surrendered on May 7, ending the siege that had cost the lives of about 25,000 Vietnamese and more than 1,500 French troops .
Friday, June 18, 2010
In the Soviet Union and China
In1923, Ho left Paris for Moscow, where he was appointed by Comintern , and he participated in the Fifth Comintern Congress in June 1924, before arriving in Canton (Guanzhou)China, in Nov 1924.
He married a Chinese woman, Thang Tuyet Minh (Zing Xueming) on 18 Oct 1926 because he wanted a lady who wouldteach him Chinese and look after his house.She was 21 and he was 36. He left Canton and returned to Moscow again in 1927. He had to move for organising Communist Party in different countries and he was arrested at Hong Kong in June 1931.Around 1940, he regularly used the name Ho Chi Minh, meaning "brighter light."
Wednesday, June 16, 2010
Nguyen Sinh Cung, also known as Nguyen Ai Quoc, born on 19 May, 1890 in Hoang Tru Village,Vietnam, was a Communist Revolutionary and statesman who became prime Minister (1946-1955) and president of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (north Vietnam). He led the Viet Minh independence movement from 1941 onward and established the Communist Government in Democratic Republic of Vietnam in 1945defeating the French Union in 1954 at Dien Bien Phu.
He was born in mother's hometown .but was brought up in his paternal residence of Kim Lien Village, Vietnam. Minh studied with his father, a teacher, before going to school with a scholar named Vuong Thuc Do. He quickly mastered Chinese writing , a requisite for any serious study of Confucianism, while honing his colquial Vietnamese writing. In addition to his studies, he was fond of flying kites, going fishing etc.At the age 10, his father gave him a new nam, Nguyen Tat Thanh. In defence to his father Cung received a French education, attended lycee in Hue, the alma mater of his later disciples.He later left his studies and chose to teach at Duc Thanh school in Phan Thiet.
In the USA
Minh joined to work, in 1912, as a cook's helper on a ship and travelled to the United States. From 1912 to 1913, he lived in New York (Harlem)and Boston, where he workedd as a baker at the Parker House Hotel. He began to work different kinds of menial jobs. He worked for a wealth family in Brooklyn between 1917 and 1918, during this time he was influenced by Marcus Garvey in Harlem. It is believed that while in the Unidted States he made contact with Korean nationalists, an experience that developed his political outlook.
Tuesday, June 15, 2010
The flag of the Colonial Annam West's involvement in Vietnam dates back to 166 BC with arrival of merchants from the Roman Empire , 1292 with the visit of Marco Polo and the early 1500s with the arrival of Portuguese and other European traders and missionaries Alixendre the Rhodes, a French Jesuit Priest improved on earlier work by Portuguese missionaries and developed the Vietnamese Romanised alphabet in 1651.
After Nguyen Anh established the Nguyen Dynasty in 1802, he tolerated Catholicism and employed some Europeans in his court as advisors.However, he and his successors were conservative Confucians who resisted westernisation. The next Nguyen Emperors, Ming Mang Thiu Tri and Tu Duc brutally suppressed catholicism and pursued a closer door policy, perceiving the westerners as a threat.Tens of thousands of Vietnamese and foreign born Christians were persecuted and trade with the west slowed during the period.These acts were soon being used as excuses for France to invade Vietnam.Actually, the early Nguyen dynasty accomplished almost everything the previous great Dynasties did excepts those fits were not enough in the new age of science , technology, industrialisation, trade and politics.The Nguyen dynasty was usually blamed for failing modernize the country in time to prevent French colonisation in the late 19th century.
Under the orders of Napolean II of France, the French gunships under Reault De Genouilli attacked the port of Da Nang in 1858, causing significant damages, yet failed to gain any foothold. De Ganouilli decided to sail south and captured the poorly defended city Gia Dinh (present day Saigon). from 1859 to 1887, French troops expanded their control over all provinces on the Mekong Delta and formed a French colony known as Cochin China. A few years later French troops landed in Northern Vietnam (which they called Tonkin) and captured Ha Noi twice in 1873 and 1882. The French managed to keep their grip on Tonkin although twice, their top commanders, Francis Garnier and Henry Rivieire were ambushed and killed.France assumed control over the whole of Vietnam after the Franco-Chinese war (1884-1885). French Indo-China was formed in Oct 1887 from Annam(central Vietnam).
In the early 20th century, the Vietnamese patriots realised that they could not defeat France without modernization. Japan served as a perfect example that modernization could help an Asian country to defeat European Empire.