Friday, June 4, 2010

Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (1928-1979) (contd-1)

In 1962, he was appointed Pakistan's Foreign Minister. His swift rise to power also brought him national prominence and popularity. As foreign Minister, Bhutto siginicantly transformed Pakistan's hitherto pro-Western foreign policy . While mentioning a prominent role for Pakistan within the South East Asia Treaty Organistation and the Central Treaty Organisation.Bhutto worked to establish strong relationship with People's Republic of China. Bhutto visited Beijing and helped Ayub  negotiate trade and Military agreeements with the Chinese regime.on March 1963 that transferred  Bhutto also signed Sino-Pakistan boundary agreement on March 1963that transformed 750 sq. kilometres of territory from Pakistan Administered Kashmir  to Chinese Control. Bhutto asserted his belief in non-alisnment, making Pakistan an influential member in non-aligned organisations. Believing in pan-Islamic unity , Bhutto developed closer relations with nations such as Indonesia, Saodi Arab and other Arab States.
Bhutto advocated hardline and confrontational policies against India over the Kashmir conflict. A 17-day war, known as the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 was settled in Tashkent with the Indian Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri where Bhutto joined Ayub.
This agreement was deeply unpopular in Pakistan, causing major political unrest against Ayub's regime . Bhutto began travelling across the country and impressed the supporters of PPP that "Islam is our faith, democracy is our policy, socialism is our economy, All power to the people."
Following Ayub's resignation, the new president Gen Yahya Khan promised to hold parliamentary elections on Dec 1970, Bhutto's Party won a large number of seats from constituencies in West Pakistan. But Sheikh Mujibur's Awami League won an outright majority from the constituencies located in East Pakistan. Bhutto refused to accept an Awami League Govt. and famously promised to "break the legs" of any elected PPP member who dared to attend the National Assembly and thus the Bangladesh was created.
Bhutto visited India to meet Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and negotiated a formal peace agrement and the release of 93,000 Pakistani Prisoners of War and agreed to a new yet temporarily ceasefire line in Kashmir 
President of Pakistan    
A Pakistan International Airlines plane was sent to fetch Bhutto from New york, where he was representing Pakistan's case in United Nations Security Council on the East Pakistan crises  on Dec 1971. On Dec 20 he was taken to the President House in Rawalpindi where he took over two positions from Yahya Khan, 1. President,2. Chief martial Law Administrator.
He took steps to ameliorate poverty and to revitalise the economy, industry and agrculture.In early 1972, Bhutto nationalised ten categories of major industries and withdrew Pakistan from the Common Wealth of Nations and SEATO. On March he introduced extensive land reforms. On July 2, 1972, he signed the Simla Agreement with India for exchange of the occupied territories and release of Prisoners of War. After the 1973 constitution was promulgated, Bhutto was elected by the house to be the prime Minister, and he was sworn in on 14 th Aug 1973.
Father of the Nuclear programme
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was the founder of Pakistan's nuclear programme . After India's Nuclear test on May 1974, Prime Miniater Bhutto determined to be equipped with the nuclear weapon.In a conference convened for the purpose he reiterated that he wanted Nuclear power within three years and gave the charg to Dr. S.A.Butt
He was replaced by Zia-ul-Haq by a coup in 1977 and Bhutto had to face a trial on charges of conspiracy of trial.Bhutto was hanged on Mar, 1979 at central Jail.