Sunday, June 6, 2010

Zia-ul-Haq (contd-1)

Zia was born in Jalandhar, British India, in 1924 of Muhammad Akbar, who worked as a senior clerk in the army GHQ in Delhi and Simla pre-partition.
After Graduation from St.Stephen's College in Delhi, Zia joined the British Indian Army in 1943. He married Shafiq Jahan in 1951.One of his sons went into politics  (Muhammad Ijaz-ul-Haq)becoming a cabinet minister in the Govt of Nawaz Shariff.
He was commissioned in the British Indian Army in a cavalry regiment on      12 May 1943 and served against Nazi Germany and its Allies in WW II. After Pakistan gained its Independence, Zia joined the newly formed Pakistan Army as a major.He was trained in the United States in 1962-1964 at the US Army Command and General Staff College Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. After returning,  he took over charge as Directing Staff (DS) at Command and Staff College, Quetta. During Indo-Pakistan War Zia was a tank commander.
Zia was stationed in Jordan from 1967 to 1970 as a Brigadier, helping in the training of Jordanian soldiers, as well as leading the training mission into battle during the Black September Operation  as a commander of Jordanian 2nd Division, a strategy that proved crucial to King Hussein's remaining in Power. By 1973, then Maj. Gen. Zia was commanding the first Armoured Division at Multan.
He was then promoted to Lt. Gen and was appointed commander of the II Strike Corps at Multan in 1975.
On March 1, 1976, Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto approved Zia-ul-Haq as Chief of Army Staff.
But Prime Minister Bhutto began facing cosiderable criticism and increasing unpopulaity as his term progressed.
On 8 jan 1977, a large number of opposition political parties grouped to form the Pakistan National Alliance (PNA). Bhutto called fresh elections. On 5 July, 1977, Bhutto and members of his cabinet were arrested by the troops under the order of general Zia.
After assuming Power as Chief Martial law Administrator , Gen Zia promised to hold national and provincial election within 90 days.

Nusrat Bhutto, wife of Bhutto, filed a suit against Zia but supreme court justified Zia's action.
Gen Zia instead of holding election took a referendum on 1 Dec 1984, which showed 95 % in favour of Zia.
Zia participated in Soviet-Afghan war against USSR.
Zia slowly reversed the nationalisation policy and experienced an annual growth of 6.8 % in the GNP.
Gen Zia enforced Sharia law and implemented Islamisation in Pakistan.
Zia introduced Hudood ordince ; By nwhich he enforced the amputation of right hand from its wrist and left leg from its ankle as a punishment for doing some illegal activities.
He died in a plane crash while coming from US.