Monday, June 14, 2010

Vietnam, History

Viet Nam (as pronounced by Vietnamese) was adopted as the official name of the country by Emperor Gia Long in 1804. It is a variation of "Nam Viet", a name used in ancient times.In 1839, Emperor Minh Mang renamed the country Dai Nam (Great South)
In 1945, the nation's official name was changed back to Vietnam.
About 2000 to 1400 BCE Vietnam was known to be a plce of Early Bronze age. By about 1200 BCE, wet-rice cultivation was adopted in the Ma River and Red River areas, where bronze weapons, utensils were in use.
The Hung kings was considered as the first vietnamese state.In 257 BCE, the last Hung king lost to Thuc PhanSome tribes Duong vuong came to powerwho in 207 BCE was defeated by Chinese general , ZhaTuo consolidated Au lac into Nanyue. In 111 BCE, the Chinese Han dynasty took over Nanyue into their empire.
For the next 1000 years, Vietnam was mostly under chinese rule.It became independent under the Anterior Ly Dynasty between 544 and 602. By the early 10th century Vietnem gained autonomy, but not independence, under the Khuk family.
In 938 CE, a Cietnamese lord named Ngo Quyen defeated Chinese forces at the Bach Dang River and regained Independence after a millenium under Chinese control. Renamed as Dai Viet (Great Viet), the nation went through a golden eraduring the Ly and Tran Dynasties. During the rule of the Tran Dynasty, Dai Viet repelled three Mongol invasions. Budhism flourished and became the state religion.
Following the brief Ho Dynasty, Vietnamese Independence was temporarily interrupted by the Chinese Ming Dynasty, but was restored by Le Loi, the founder of the Le Dynasty. Vietnam reached its Zenith in the Le Dynasty of the 15th century, especially during the reign of Emperor Le Thanh  Tong (1460-1497).   

Between the 11th and 18th centuries, Vietnam expanded southward in a process known as nam tien  (southward expansion), and eventually conquered the kingdom of Champa and part of the Khmer Empire.

Map of Vietnam showing the conquest of the south (the Nam Tien, 1069-1757).
From the 1500s onwards, civil strife and frequent infighting engulfed much of Vietnam.First, the Chinese-supported Mac Dynasty challenged the Le Dynasty's power. After the Mac Dynasty challenged the Le Dynasty's power.After the Mac Dynasty was defeated, the Le Dynasty was reinstalled, but with no actual power.