Thursday, October 11, 2012

Angola- Rivers & Dams

The Cuanza River (also spelled Coanza, Kwanzaa, Quanza, Kwanza, or Kuanza) is a river in Angola. It empties into the Atlantic Ocean just south of the nation's capital, Luanda.

Rich biodiversity has been found in the Angolan river, according to research reported on the Science and Development Network website. Angola's first biodiversity tally of the Kwanza River has so far found 50 fish species. Researchers from the National Fishing Research Institute and the South African Institute for Aquatic Biodiversity say genetic testing may reveal new species.

1 Overview

2 Tributaries

3 References
4 External links
The river gives its name to two provinces of Angola: Cuanza Norte, which lies on the river's north bank, and Cuanza Sul, on the south bank. It is also a source of hydroelectric power for Angola, in the form of the Capanda Dam in Malanje Province, finished in 2004. The dam also provides water for irrigation of sugarcane and other crops in the lower Cuanza valley. The rivers's lower course is navigable for about 150 miles and was the original route of Portuguese penetration into north Angola.
The Angolan monetary currency is named after the river. The Barra do Kwanza, the mouth of the river, is gradually being developed to appeal to tourists and day-trippers from the capital, Luanda situated some 60 km to the north. Even a golf course is under development. Overnight accommodation is available but, due to very limited availability and high demand, pre booking is essential. Sport fishing is excellent, notably Tarpon. 90 kg examples are not unusual. The river, from the bridge to the sea, forms the Northern border of the Quissama National Park.

Energy in Angola describes energy and electricity production, consumption and export from Angola. Energy policy of Angola describes the energy policy in the politics of Angola more in detail.
Energy in Angola is primarily driven by hydroelectric power.
Primary energy use in 2009 in Angola was 138 TWh and 7 TWh per million persons.


 1 Overview


Energy in Angola 
Capita Prim. energy Production Export Electricity CO2-emission
Million TWh TWh TWh TWh Mt
2004 15.49 110 667 547 1.92 7.81
2007 17.02 124 1,104 979 3.24 10.66
2008 18.02 128 1,231 1,090 3.41 10.56
2009 18.50 138 1,174 1,033 3.75 12.92
Change 2004-2009 19.4% 25.4% 76.0% 88.7% 95.3% 65.4%
Mtoe = 11.63 TWh, Prim. energy includes energy losses
Angola population has increased 19.4% in five years 2004-2009.


Angola has extensive hydroelectric power resources that far exceed its present needs. The Capanda Dam, on the Cuanza River, provides Luanda's industries with cheap power. Two dams on the Catumbela River produce power for the Lobito and Benguela areas. Matala Dam in southern Cunene provides power to Lubango and Namibe. The Ruacaná Falls Dam, near the Namibian border, was completed in the late 1970s, but the power station is in Namibia. A 520 MW hydroelectric station on the Cuanza River at Kapanda was tentatively scheduled to have begun production in early 2003. As of late 2002, only three of the country's six dams (Cambambe, Biopo, and Matala) were operational; US$200 million has been allocated to repair the remaining dams, which suffered major damage in the civil war. In 2002, electricity generation was 1.728 TW·h, of which 34.5% came from fossil fuels and 65.5% from hydropower. In the same year, consumption of electricity totaled 1.607 TW·h. Total capacity in 2002 was 635 MW. Electricity is produced by Empresa Nacional de Electricidade de Angola.

 Crude oil

Crude oil, in the production of which Angola ranks second in sub-Saharan Africa, has been Angola’s chief export since 1973; it is also the leading source of government revenue, accounting for $2.9 billion in exports in 1994, or 95% of the total. As of end 2004, Angola had proven oil reserves of 8.8 billion barrels (1.40 km3). Oil reserves are along the Atlantic coast, mostly off shore Cabinda and the northern border area between Quinzau and Soyo. In 1999, several oil companies were engaged in production, of which the largest was a subsidiary of Chevron, Cabinda Gulf Oil Company. This company has a 49/51% participation agreement with Sonangol, the state oil company. Other firms included Fina Petróleos de Angola (a Belgian subsidiary), Elf Aquitaine, and Texaco. In 2004, crude oil production averaged 991,000 barrels per day (157,600 m3/d). ExxonMobil subsidiary Esso began development of a section of the Xikomba offshore oilfield in August 2002. Development was planned for a new 200,000-barrel-per-day (32,000 m3/d) refinery in the city of Lobito, on the coast.

 Natural gas

Gross natural gas production totaled 8.4 km3 (3.0×1011 cu ft) in 2002. Total natural gas reserves were estimated at 45 km3 (1.6 trillion cubic feet) as of 2002. Domestic demand for refined petroleum products is expected to increase as the economy gradually rebuilds following the end of the civil war. As of 2002, Sonangol and Chevron Texaco had joined forces in a $2 billion project to develop liquefied natural gas from natural gas in Angola's off shore fields. Production was slated to begin in 2007.


 Oil spills in Angola

Angola fined ChevronTexaco $2m for causing environmental damage in 2002