Thursday, October 1, 2009

Bangladesh, Independence Era (1st 25 years)

The first parliamentary election of Bangladesh was held under the 1972 constitution inMarch 1973, Awami League under the leadership of Mujib won a massive victory. But to cope with the situation arising out of the famine of 1974, the continuing economic deterioration, and mounting civil disorder, Mujib took some drastic steps to curtail the democratic rights of the people and the Party which led to the assassination of Mujib (1972-1975) and the members of his famile and others except his two daughters who were in Germany at that time.
It was revealed that mid-level army officers organized the massacres. A new Govt. headed by Mujib's former associates Khandaker Mostaque (Aug 1975-Nov 1975 ).
Successive Military coups resulted in the emergence of Aemy chief of Staff Ge. Ziaur Rahman (Zia) as strong man . In the historic 7th Nov 1975, "Jatio Biplab O Sanghoti Dibosh" the army captured the powerfreed Major Zia. He pledged the army's support to the civilian govt. headed by President Chief Justice Sayam.
Lieutenant General Ziaur Rahman (19 Jan 1936-30 may 1981) was a chrismatic Bangladeshi war hero. He was born in the village of Bagbari in the Bogra District in north west Bangladesh. His father Mansur Rahman was a chemist serving in a Govt. Dept. in Kolkata. After partition he opted to go to Pakistan and was posted in Karachi. Zia was enroled in Academy School in Karachi. He was then admitted in D.J.College there in 1953.
In the same year he was admitted as an officer cadet in Pakistan Military Academy in Kakul.He was commissioned as a second Lieutenant in Pakistan Army in 1955. After serving for two years in Karachi, he was transferred to the Easrr Bengal Regiment in 1957. From 1959 to 1964 he worked in the in the Department of Military Intelligence. In 1960 , he married a young Bengali girl of 15, Khaleda Zia , of Dinajpur District. She joined her husband in Karachi in 1965, after finishing her studies living with her parents.During Indo-Pakistani war of 1965, Zia served in Khemkaran sectorin Punjab as the commander of a company of 300-500 soldiers. Zia got an award for his heroic performance there and obtained Hilal-e-Jurat medal and his unit got 2 Sitara-e Jurat medals and 9 Tamgha-e-Jurat medals. In 1966 he was appointed as a Military Instructor at the Pakistan Military Academy.
As an Instructor he raised two Battalion in East benagal. He joined as a second-in-command in the 2nd Battalion. At end of 60s, he went to West Germany for higher training as an officer. He came back when Bangladesh was devasted with Bhola cycloce. He was transferred to the 8th East BengalRegiment and posted at Chittagong as its second-in-command. His rank was Major.
One of the highest ranking Military officer Zia, during Liberation War , led his unit in Mutiny killed all the Pakistani officers and captured a radio station in Kalughat near Chittagong , which was called Swadhin Bangla Betar Kendra. On March 27, addressing the people via radio, Zia read the independence declaration on behalf of Sheikh Mujibur Rahaman. He was appointed commander of Mukti Bahini.
He was working under General M.A.G.Osmani, the supreme Commander. He was the promoted to Major General and and used to see the development of the army.When Khandaker Mostaque, after assassination of Mujib, became the president Zia was promoted to the army chief replacing Maj. Gen. Shafiullah.
Zia became the 6th president of Bangladesh, on 21 April,1977.