Sunday, September 6, 2009

Bangladesh, Sir Stafford Cripps (!889-1952)

World War II
Adolf Hitler,1934
Hideki Tojo, Japan's Premier
Mussolini, Prime minister of Italy
The dispute arose over the Polish corridor- a slice of territory in Germany givewn to for poland for direct access to the sea-and as negotiations failed, Germany Forces invaded Poland on 1 Sept. 1939. Two days later England and France declared war against Germany.Polish resistance collapsed in three weeksand then Hitler turned towards the west. He overranNorway aand Denmark in April, 1940;Holland, Belgium and Luxemburg in May, 1940; Then came the turn of France. Within a month France fell at the feet of Hitler.Both sides gained new allies. First Italy (!! June, 1940), then Japan(7 Dec 1941) joined Germany to for the axis. USA joined with Britain to form allied Powers. and thus began World War II.Hitler suddenly invaded Russia on 22 June, 1941. A categorical turn took place in the quality of the war
Japan attacked Pearl Harbour in the Pacific, oveeran Malay, captured Singapore , conquered Thailand, invaded Burma. Rangoon fell on 7 March, 1942.
Sir Stafford cripps was sent India for negotiation with the leaders of the Congress and the League.

Sir Stafford Cripps (1889-1952) was born in London, educated in Winchester College and and at the University of London in Chemistry. He changed his subject to law and became a barrister in 1912.

Politically he was left minded and joined Labour Party. He became Solicitor General in second labour Govt. He stood in a by-election in a labour seat. He was outspoken and socialistand strong proponent of Marxist social and economic policies. Cripps was an early advocate of a united front against the rising threat of fascism. But in 1939 he was expelled from the Labour Party for he advocated a popular front with the Communist Party, and anti-apeasement Liberals and Conservatives.

Cripps Mission;

His Mission was an attempt in late March 1942, by the British Govt. to secure Indian cooperation and support for their efforts in WWII.

In 1939 the viceroy , Lord Linlithgow, without consulting the leaders of Indian national Congress declared India a belligerent state on the side of the allies. This caused resentment amongst leaders and the elected Congress Party Provincizal Govt. resigned en masse. Though amongst the Congress there were two opinions but the majority was not in favour of war . M.K.Gandhi was amongst them.

Failure of the Mission;

On his arrival in India , Cripps held talks with the Indian leaders. But on the question of immediate self-government in return for war support the talks did not proceed further as the British was not in agreement. Rather the Congress took a resolution of "Quit India" in Aug 1942.

Muslim League took the advantage by supporting the Govt. and taking the office after retirement of the Congress Leaders.