Monday, September 21, 2009

Bangladesh, Liberation War (contd-3)

Banladesh was exploited by British during 1757-1947, and now it was the turn of West Pakistan, keeping herself at a distance of 1600 kilometers, to exploit Bangladesh in three was;
1. Economically, 2. Politically, and Culturally (already explained in Laguage movement).
1. Economically:During the British rule at the beginning , there was no industries and the people were mainly farmers who spend most of their lives on land.All the relations of East Bengal had during the British colonial rule were with the economic centre at Calcutta, which was in W.B., not at a far distance. There was no relation with West Pakistan economically. Now, after independence, only the exploiters had changed.
Till 1971,East Pakistan tried to acquire an equal position, (not greater though their polpulation was larger than that of West Pakistan), in the Dominion of Pakistan. But the West Pakistan had the strategy of all attempts of East Pakistan to frustrate all attempts of East Pakistan to obtain any official position of Pakistan. Besides that the army was also dominated by the West Pakistan. i)The Economic exploitation of East Pakistn ,present Bangladesh , could also be seen in the development of GDP per capita during the period 1947-1971, while the difference in GDP per capita between west and East was only 9 % in 1950 which rose upto 60 % in 1971.
ii) Between 1948 and 1960, East Pakistan's export earnings had been 70 % of national total while it only received 25 % of the earning. between 1950 and 1970 only 34 % of the development expenditure was spent in East Bengal despite having its population 50 % more than that ofn West Pakistan.
West Pakistan consisting of four provinces (Punjab, Sindh, Baluchstan and NWFP) with 44% of peoplereceived more moneyfrom the common budget than that of East.
Year Spending on west(in crores of rupees)/year spending on east (in crores of rupees)/% of east against west;
source; 4th five year plan, vol-i
In 1948 there were 11 textile mills in east Bengal and only 9 in the west
In 1971 there were 26nin the East as opposed to 150 in the west
Result; East pakistan 's economy was made deficit from a surplus one.
2. Politically ; Growing tensions led to the One-unit policy, implemented in 1955, which abolished the Provinces. Under this policy West Punjab, Baluchistan, Sindh, and the NWFP was made one unit.
The tension between East and West reached a climax in 1970 when the Awami League, the lrgest Party in East Pakistan, led by Seikh Mujibar Rahman, won a landslide victory in the national election of Pakistan winning 167 seats out of 169 in East Pakistan where as the Pakistan Peoples Partyled by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto won 85 seats in west pakistan. But Yahya Khan and Bhutto refused to hand over power to Mujib.
Meanwhile Mujib initiated a civil disobedience movement, which was strongly supported by the general population of East Pakistan, including most Government workers. A round table conference between Yahya,Bhutto and Mujib was convened in Dhaka, which ended without solution. Soon, thereafter, the Pakistani army commenced Operation Searchlight , an organised crackdown on the east pakistani army, police, and civiliansand students in Dhaka. Mujib and many other leaders were arrestedwhile others fled to neighbouring India. N 27 March,1971, Major Ziaur Rahman, a Bengali war veteran of the east Bengal Regiment of the Pakistan Army, declared the Independence of East Pakistanas the new nation of Bangladesh on behalf of Mujib.The crackdown widened and escalated into a guerrilla warfare between the Pakistane Army and the Mukti Bahini.
Although the killing of Bengalis was un-supported by the people of west pakistan, it continued for 9 months.
10 million Bengali refugees came to India and India Govt. supported the rebels with its arms ammunitions. Independence War of bangladesh thus started.