Tuesday, September 22, 2009

Bangladesh, Liberation War (Contd-4)

Growing tensions led to the One-Unit policy, implemented in 1955, West Punjab, Balochistan, Sind and NWFP were merged under the nominal designation of West Pakistan and East Bengal became East Pakistan. Also the rapid changes of the heads of the Govt.s, such as,
Prime Minister
1947-51.......Liaquat Ali khan
1951-53......Khawaza Nazimuddin
1953-55........Muhammad Ali Bogra
1955-56......Choudhury Muhammad Ali
After the assassination of Liaquat Ali Khan, Pakistan first Prime Minister, in 1951, poliical power began to be concentrated in the President of Pakistan, and eventually, the military. The nominal elected chief executive, the Prime Minister, was frequently sacked by by the establishment , acting through the President.
East Pakistanis noticed whenever one of them, such as Khawaza Nazimuddin, Muhammad Ali Bograa, or H.S.Suhrawardy were elected Prime MInister they were swiftly deposed by the largely West Pakistani establishment. The Military dictatorships, of Ayub Khan (27 Oct 1958-25 March 1969) and Yahya han (25 March, 1969- 20 Dec 1971) both West Pakistanis, only highlightened such feeings.
The situation reached a climax when in 1970 the Awami League , the largest east Pakistani political party, led by Seikh Mujibar Rahman, won a landslide victory in the national elections . Bhutto also refused to accept Rahman's six points programme. On 3 March 1971, the two leaders of the two wings along with the president Gneral Yahya khan met in Dhaka to decide the fate of the country. Talks failed. Seikh Mujibar Rahman called a statewide strike.
On 7 March 1971, Mujibar delivered a speech at the racecourse (now called Suhrawardy Udayan). In this speech he mentioned a further four point condition to consider the national assembly meeting on 25 March;
1. The immediate lifting of martial law,
2. Immediate withdrawal of all military personnel to their barracks,
3. An inquiy into the loss of life,
4. Immediate transfer of power to the elected representative of the people before the assembly meeting 25 March..

He urged "his people" to turn every house into a fort of resistance. He closed his speech saying, Our struggle is for our freedom. Our struggle is for our freedom. This speech was considered main event that inspired the nation to fight fight for their independence. General Tikka Khan flown in to Dhaka to become governor of East Bengal. East Pakistani Judges, including Saddique, refused to swear him in.

Between 10-13 march, Pakistan International Air lines canclled all their flight for urgently flying Govt. passengers to Dhaka. The passengers were were almost soldiers etc. A unit of East pakistan Rifles refused to obey orders of west Pakistn's officers.