"The preface to the present edition I must, alas, sign alone . Marx, the man to whom the whole working class of Europe and America owes more than to any one else --rests at Highgate Cematary and over his grave the first grass is already growing.
London Highgate cematary of Karl Marx
Since his death ( 13 March, 1883), there can be even less thought of revising or supplementing the Menifesto. But I consider it all the more necessaryagain to state the following expressly;
" The basic thought running throu this Manifesto - that economic production, and the structure of society of every historical epoch necessarily arising thereform, constitute the foundation for the political and intellectual history of that epoch, that consequently (ever since the dissolution of the primaeval communal ownership of Land) all history has been a historyof class struuggles, of struggles between exploited and exploiting , between dominated and dominating classes at various stages of social evolution, that this struggle , however, has now reached a stage where the exploited and oppressed class (the proletariat)can no loger emancipate itself from the class which exploits and oppresses it (bourgeoisie), withoutat the same time forever freeing the whole of society from exploitation, oppression, class struggles-this basic thought belongs solely and exclusively to Marx.