Industrial proletariat emerged in India in the middle of 1800 when Indian Railway came into being along with its ancillary industries. Great Indian Railway Companyand Great Indian Peninsular Railway Company (both were private enterprise)installed the first railways tracks in India in 1853 and in 1859 respectively.
These developments were fuelled by the discovery of huge coal reserves in undivided Bengal in 1770. 1843 saw the birth of the first coal mines under the aegis of another private enterprise, The Bengal Coal Company.The first large scale mining operation started in Jharia. The British Tea Company, Assam Tea, started opening from 1939.
This set the proper backdrop for the emergence of industrial proletariat in India, particularly in undivided Bengal. The first ever Jute Mill in the sub-continent started operating in Bengal where Hindusthan Motors is currently situated. The first ever Cotton Mill in India was established in Bauria, a suberb of the city of calcutta in 1818. by 1880, India witnessed the growth of about 58 spinning and textile mills spanning all the major presidencies of our country. Tagore's ancestor, Prince Dwarakanath Tagore , not only founded the indigenous indigo company, but also purchased the Chinakuri Coal mines in 1837 and founded the Bengal Coal Company. Jamsedji Tata founded the Tata Iron and steal works in 1908.
In 1833, Rammohan Roy , a representative of the landedgentry, had discovered the plight of the workers in the most thorough going manner.
The price index in those days had a hike of about 75 % compared to 1820. During theperiod 1901 1nd 1911, the increqase in the labour force in the construction sector was 18.2 % and that of in the transport sector was 29.4%.
But these development was uniform through the country and the British authority, not only for "divide and rule" , were forced to re-orient their administrative divisions at the beginning of the twentieth century leading to a partition of Bengal in 1905.