Wednesday, September 2, 2009

Bangladesh, H. S. Surawardy

H.S.Surawardy (1892-1963) was born of a distinguished family of Midnapore in West Bengal in 1892. He obtained his B.Sc. (Hons) and BCL degrees from Oxford Universityand later on, called to the Bar at the Gray's Inn, London. In 1920 he returned to India and got involved in active politics.
During his political careerSurawardy held very important offices, including general secretary of the Calcutta Khilafat Committee in the 1920s, deputy mayorality of calcutta Corporation in 1924, Labour and Commerce Minister in Huq-League Ministry in 1937, Civil Supplies Ministry in Khwaza Nazimuddin Ministry during 1943-45, the Prime Minister of undivided Bengal during 1946-1947, Law Minister in Mohammad Ali's cabinet in Pakistan during 1954-1955 and, finally, the Prime minister in Pakistan for a perio of 13 months during 1956-1957.
He was an able political organiser. He started his political life as a labour organiser and he organised 36 trade unions of different kinds. He founded the Independent Muslim Party in the Council election of 1926, he organised Bengal Mislim Election Board in the election of 1929, He founded United Muslim Party and was the secretary of the same in 1937.
At the call of Jinnah , during reorganisation of Muslim League, Surawardy joined the league with his party.As a General Secretary of Bengal Provincial Muslim League during 1937-1943, he moved through the length and breadth of the Province.
He led the campaign against Fazlul Huq causing the collapse of Huq-Mukherjee ministry of 1941-1943, He He was the architect of Muslim League's victory in the election 0f 1946 and secured114 seats out of 121 reserved seats ffor which he was inducted as a All india Leader.
He became the Prime Minister ( Chief Minister) of United Bengal.
In 1932 he attended the third Round Table conference in London as a representative of his community.He was an ardent supporter of the separate electorate system for the Muslims.He was the mover of the official resolution in Delhi Legislators Convention held on 7-9 April, 1946,on the initiative of Jinnah.
During his Chiefministership there occurred the Great Calcutta Killings' on the occasion of Direct action on 16th Aug 1946 in support for the demand of Pakistan.
Surawardy-Sarat Bose Pact:

Sarat Chandra Bose

On the eve of the 1947 partition, Surawardy attempted to form a Pact with Sarat Chandra Bose, Kiran Shankar Ray and Satya ranjan Baksi for United Independent Bengal comprising of Bihar, whole of Bengal and Assam as a third dominion alongside India and Pkistan . Abul Hashim the the secretary of Bengal Muslim League also extended his ful support to the project. But that was not successful due to the disagreement of the then Congress leader including M.K.Gandhi.