Marx noted, "Hindustan is an Italy of of asiatic dimension",....just as italy has,from time to time, been compressedby the conqueror's sword into different national masses,so do we find Hindustan,,,,England has broken down the entire framework of Indian society, without any symptoms of reconstitution yet appearing . This loss of his old qorls, with no gain of a new one, imparts a particular kind of melancholy to the present misery of the Hindoo, and separates Hindustan, ruled by Britain, from all its ancient traditions, and from the whole of its past history."
He also pointed out that Arabs,Turks, Tartars, Muguls, who had successively overrun India, soon became Hindooized, the barbarians conquerors being,by n eternal law of history, conquered themselves by the superior civilization of their subjects. The British were the first conquerors superior, and therefore inaccessible to Hindoo civilisation.
The exhaustive for money and material for the Homeland of Britainmade the East India Company to begine with a series of land revenue "settlement", which would create major changes in landed rights and rural economy in India in 1772. In 1793, The Goverfnor General Lord Cornwallis promulgated the permanent settlement in Bengal presidency, the first socio- economic regulation in colonial India. It was named permanent because it fixed the land tax in perpetuity in return for landed property rights for a class of intermediaries called zamindars, who thereafter became the owners of the land. Land revenue settlements constituted a major administrative activityof the various Governments in India under Company rule.
It was proved before a Committeeof the British House of Commons, which sat in 1848, that,
"when grain was selling from 6/- to 8/- a quarter at Khundesh, it was sold at 64/- to 70/-at poona,where the people were dying in the streets of famine, without the possibility of of gaining suppliesfrom Khundeshbecause the clay-roadswere impracticable.