Saturday, June 20, 2009

Zambia, European Invasion

The earliest European made byFrancisco de Lcerdain the late 18th century, followed by other explorers in the 19th century.The mostprominent of these was David livingstone, whohad a visionof ending the slave tradethrough the "3Cs" (Christianity, commerce andcivilisation). Hewas the first Europeanto see themagnificient waterfalls on the Zambezi river in 1855, naming them Victoria falls, afterQueen Victoria. locally the falls are known "Mosioa-Tunya". The town of Livingstone, near the falls, is named after him.
A statue of livingstoneon the Zambian side of Victoria
Highly publicised accounts of his journeys motivated a wave of explorers, missionaries,and traders after his death in 1873.
In 1888, The british South African Company, (BSA) led by Cecil Rhodes , obtained numerous rights from the Litunga, the King of the Lozi for the area which later became north-western Rhodesia.To the east, the King Mpezeniof the Ngoni resisted but was defeated in battle and that part of the country came to be known as North-Eastern Rhodesia. The two were administered as separate units until 1911 when they were merged to form northern Rhodesia.In 1923, the company ceded control of Northern Rhodesiato the British Government after the government decided not to renew the the company's charter.
The same year , Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe), which was also administered by the BSA Company,became self governing . In 1924, after negotiations, administration of Northern Rhodesia transferred to the British Colonial office. In 1953, the creation of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland grouped together Northern Rhodesia, Southern Rhodesia and Nyasaland (now Malawi)as a single semi-autonomous region.This was undertaken despite opposition from a sizeable minorityof Africans, who demonstrated against it in 1960-61. Northern rhodesia was the centre of much of the turmoil and crisis characterizing the federation in its last years. Initially , Henry Nkumbula's African National Congress (ANC) led the campaign that Kenneth Kaunda's United National Independence Party (UNIP) subsequently took up.
A two stage election held in Oct. and Dec. 1962 resulted in an African majority in the legislature and an uneasy coalition between the two African nationalist parties. and in Jan. 1864 Kaunda won an election to form Northern Rhodesia.
Northern Rhodesia became the Republic of Zambia on 24 Oct. 1964, with Kaunda as the first Prime Minister.