The political changes taking place in Franceat the time of the French Revolution brought change for the colonies. the National Assembly decreed that the Mulattoes of the colonies who owned land and pid taxes would have the rights of citizens including the right to vote. The colonial Administrators in Haiti refused to grant those rights to mulattoes and the mulattoes rebelled in 1790. The French put down the mulatto rebellion using black volunteers.
In 1791 a vclique of black leaders including some maroons initiated a slve rebellion . Along the north coast the slaves massacredall the whites they encountered . But the whites of the city of Cap Francais were able to defeat the slave rebels. The death toll was ten thousand blacks and two thousands whites. A thousands plantations had been had been destroyed in the uprising.
Some leaders emerged from the chaos. The background of one of the very few black Haitian leaders could read and write . When Toussaint heard of the slave rebellion he arranged for the evacuation of his master's family from hiti. He then joined the rebellion.
Francois-dominique Toussaint Louverture
In april 1793 Repulican french forces with the aid of thousands of black recruits to the republican cause were promised their freedom. In Aug. of 1793 the republican french administrator of Haiti abolished slavery.
In 1802 Napoleon Bonaparte sent 16 to 20 thousands troops under the command of his brother-in-law to take controlaway from Toussaint.These forces with the aid of white andmulatto forces wore down Toussaint army and two of his lieutenants with their troops switched sides,Toussaint surrendered and was later taken to France where he was imprisoned and later he died.
On jan., 1, 1804 Haiti declared independence from France and Dessalines declared himself Emperor of Haiti.