Soviet power was initially established in the region in 1918 and in 1924, the Kara-kyrgyz Autonomoous Oblast was created within the Russian Federal Socialist Republic. In 1926 , it became the Kyrgyz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. On Dec.1936, the Kyrgyz Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR) was established as Union Republic of the USSR.
During the 1920s, Kyrgyz Republic saw considerable cultural , educational, and social change. Economic and social development also was notable . Literacy increased and a standard literary language was introduced. In 1924, an Arabic based Kyrgyz alphabet was introduced, which was replaced by Latin Script in 1928. In 1941 Cyrillicscript was adopted .
The Kyrgyz Soviet Socialist Republic was established on Dec. 1936. Soviet the then Prime minister Joseph Stalin (1879-1953) ordered the destruction of many animal herds and forced the Kyrgyz to cultivate their farms, which changed the Kyrgyz lifestyle from nomadic to more settled and caused widespread famine. Another consequence of Soviet rule over the Kyrgyz was dramatic growth in literacy. Prior to 1917, most Kyrgyz schools were madrasahs, almost all Kyrgyz were illiterate. But after the founding of The Soviet Union , all religious schools were forcibly closed , and children were required to attend Public schools. this led to their universal literacy.
On 31 Aug 1991, following the collapse of Soviet Union, Kyrgyzstan declared independence.