Thursday, June 18, 2009

Kyrgyz, Independence Era (conitinued)

Culture of Kyrgyz
Election for the two legislative chambers -a 35 seat full-time assembly and a 70-seat part time assembly -were held in feb.1995, after campaigns considered remarkably free and open by most international observers, although election- day proceedings were marred by widespread irregularities. Independent canidates won mosat of the seats , suggesting that personalities prevail over ideologies. The new parliament convened its initial session in March, 1995. One of its first order of business was the approval of the precise constitutional language on the role of the legislature.
On Dec. 24, 1995, President Akayev was reelected for another 5-year term with wide support (75 % vote) over two opposing candidates. He used Govt. resources and state-owned media to carry out his campaign . Three (out of six) candidates werte de-registered shortly before the election.
Guard of honour
A feb. 1996, referendum- in violation of the constitution and the law on referendums- amended the constitution to give the President Akayev more power. Although the changes gave the president the power to dissolve parliament, it also more clearly defined the parliaments powers. Since that time , the parliament has demonstrated real independence from the executive branch.
In oct. 1998 referendum approved constitutional changes, including increase of the number of deputies in the lower house, reducing the no. of deputies in the upper house, oroviding for 25 % of lower house deputies to be elected by party lists, rolling back parliamentary immunity, introducing private property, prohibiting adoption of laws restricting freedom of speech and mass media, and reforming the state budget.
In the latest election , under the sporadic protests by opposition parties and seizure of government building , Akayev hurriedly fled away first to neighbouring Kazakistan and then to Moscow , initially refusing ti resign and denouncing the events as a coup , he susequently resigened his office on april. 2005.