Wednesday, June 24, 2009

Haiti,Post Independence (cont.)

From Feb. 7,1986-when the 29 years dictatorship of the Duvalier family ended--until 1991,Haiti was ruled by a series of provisional Govt. In March 1987, a constitution was ratified that provides for an elected bicameral parliament, an elected president that serves as head of state , and a prime minister, cabinet, ministers, and a supreme court appointed by the president with parliament's consent. The Haitian conetitution also provides for political decentrlisation through the election of mayors and administrative bodies responsible for local govt.
1991-1994--An Interrupted Trnsition
In Dec. 1990, Jean Bertrand Aristide, a charismatic Roman Catholic priest, won 67% of the vote in presidential election that international observers deemed largely free and fair. Aristide took office on Feb. 1991, but was overthrown that Sept. in a violent coup led by dissatisfied elements of the army and supported by many of the country's economic elite. Following the coup , Aristide began a 3-year exile in the US. Several thousands Haitians may had been killed during the de facto military rule. The coup contributed to a large-scale exodus of Haitians by boat. The US Coast Guard rescued a total of 41,342 Haitians at sea during 1991 and 1992, morethan the number of rescued boat people from the previous 10 years combined.
From Oct. 1991, to Sept. 1994 an unconstitutional military de facto regime governed Haiti. Various OAS and UN initiatives to end the plolitical crisis through the peaceful restoration of the constitutionally 1993, failed.When the military refused to uphold its end of the agreements, the defacto authorties refused to allow a return to constitutional govt. even though the economy was collapsing and the country's infrastructure deterioratedfailed from neglect.