In Feb. 1953, The United Kingdom and Egypt
concluded an agreement providing for Sudanese self-government and self determination. The transitional period toward independennce began with the inauguration of the first parliament in 1954. With consent of the British and Egyptian Governments. Sudan achieved independence on Jan. 1, 1956, under a provisional constitution. This constitution wassilent about two crucial issues.1.The secular or Islamic state of the state, 2. Its federal or unitary character of the state. The United States was among the first foreign powers to recognize the new State.
However, in the run-up of Sudan's independence, the civil service and administration were placed in the hands of the Northern Sudanese, depriving the southern Sudanese. The Arab-led Khartoum Government reneged on promises to southerners to creat a federal system, which led to a mutiny by southern troopsin the equatorial province. Feeling disenfrancised and cheated , these separatists southerners began an initially low-intensity civil war armed at establishing an independent south. This war would last 17 years from 1955 to 1972.
For these 17 years , the southern region experienced civil strife , and various southern leaders agitated for regional autonomy or outright secession. he chaotic state of insurgency against the central Governmentwas suspended in 1972after the signing of the Addis Ababa Accords grantng southern Sudan wide regional autonomy on internal matters. This led to a period of 10 years of hiatus in the civil war.