The history of the Bengal legislature dated back to 18 jan. 1862 when under the Indian Councils Act of 1861, a 12 member legislative council for Bengal was established by the Governor-General of India with lt. governor of Bengal and some nominated members. The strength of the council was gradually enlarged by subsequent Acts. Under the Indian Councils act of 1892, the maximum strength of the Council was raised to 20 out of which 7 were to be elected. the indian councils act of 1909, the number of members of the Council raised to 50. Under the Govt. of India act 1919, the number pf members of the legilative council again raised to 125, which was formally inaugurated on 1 Deb. 1921 by His Royal highness the duke of Connaught.
a few years later, under the provisions of the Govt. of india Act 1935, two chambers of the bengal Legislature : The legislative Council and the Legislative assembly , were created.the result of the election to the bengal Legislative council in nov. 1926, clearly reflected the communal trend in organised politics.The swarajists, who failed to dissociate themselves from Hindu vested interests despite their nationalist concerns, won 35 of the 47 hindu seats but were successful in only one of the 39 Muslim constituencies. On the other hand, the Bengal Muslim party under Abdur Rahim emerged as the largest single group in the new council. But t could not present a united political front with the other two Muslim organisations, the Bengal Muslim Council Party and the independentmuslim Party. What, however, became significant was the development of a "Muslim Bloc" inside the Bengal legislature.None of the ministries formed after the 1926 elections had a long life , but all of them were Muslim dominated Muslim politicians in Bengalwere thus seizing the initiative in legislative politics. The Calcutta Corporation Electionsof April 1927, also resulted in the formation of a distinct Muslim group within that body. Muslim councilors held the political balance.
The alignment of communal political forces was manifested in discussions on economic issues too. To mobilise support from the communities subordinate social groups the muslim leaders voiced in the Bengal legilative council and other bodies an unequivocal support for the overwhelmingly Muslim praja (tenant) against their predominantlyHindu zamindars.this c ould be noticed during the Tenancy Act debates in the council in 1928. While the Muslim members with few exceptions voted for all clauses of the Act that favouredthe bargadars (share croppers) , under raiyats and tenants, the Hindu members -Swarajists alike-sought to protect the interests of the owners of the land. In popular Muslim perceptions the Hindu politicians naturally came to be viewed as allies of the Hindu renter class.