The Khilafat movement was another land mark in the evolution of communal political idintities in Bengal.For, it presaged an alliance between Hindus and Muslims on a religious issue that, once broken, generated a communal backlash. The movement had provided a political platform to the ulama who imparted a new consciousness and confidence to their coreligionists that prepared them for the future acceptance of the two nation theory. On their part the Hindu leaders such as Madan Mohan Malaviya in post-Khilafat day raised the cry of 'Hindi-Hindi-Hindu."
At the early stages of the anti-partition movement it was supported by the Muslims of bengal. Even the Nawab of Dhaka was at first disposed to stand by the Himdu Zamindars. A muslim Zamindar of faridpur warned his co-religionists not to believe that the partition would benefit the mohammadans by creating a mohammadan province.Another muslim zamindar cordially co-operated with Aswini Kumar Dutta of Barsali. Mr. A rasul was staunch swadeshist and presided over the Barisal conference held in April, 1906, to which reference had been made above. Abdul Halim ghaznavi of Abul Kasem of Burdwan, Liakat hussain, and many other prominent leaders among muslims were enthusiastic supporters of the swadeshi movement.
Even in mofussil areas, particularly Barisal, the muslim masses joined the swadeshi movement and were inspired by folk songs composed for the purpose. They joined Bandemataram processions, carried Bandemataram flags and attended public meetings addressed by Hindu leaders.They mixed up Allah-ho-akbar with Bande mataram. but this was only one side of the picture.
In the wake of the partition of Bengal, a serious communal riots broke in different parts of India.