He became Cairman of the Dhaka Municipality from 1922 to 1929 when he introduced compulsory primary education in the Municipality. He was also a member of the executive Council of Dhaka University.He was elected member of Bengal Legislative Assembly from Barisal costituency in 1923,1926,and 1929 and was education Minister of bengal from 1929 to June 1934. He took active part in passing the compulsory primary education bill in 1930. From 1934-1936 he was a member of the Executive Council of the Govt. of Bengal. He took initiaive for the enactment of 'Bangiya Rin Salisi Board' Bill 1935 and 'Bangiya Palli Unnayan' Bill 1936.
In the election of 1937, he, contesting from MuslimLeague, was defeated by A.K.Fazlul Huq of
KPP leader in the Patuakhali constituency. but later on he won from the north calcutta constituency vacated by H.S. Surawardy. he assisted M.A.Jinnah in reorganising the Muslim League and became known as a high ranking party leader. In 1937 he was appointed as a Home Ministerin Huq's coalition Ministry.On 1 Dec., 1941 he resigned from the cabinet because of dissension between Huq and Jinnah. During Shyama-Huq coalition from 1941-1943, he acted as the leader of opposition party.On 24 April 1943 Muslim formed the Ministry of Bengal and He became the Prime minister. The cabinet was dissolved on 28 march, 1945. He was a member of Indian delegation to the food conference held in United States in 1945 and represented India at the united nations meeting held in Geneva in 1946. He was a member of AIML from 1937 to 1947.