Map of the British India 1909,showing the prevailing majority religions of the population for different districts.
The ideology of Pakistan took shape through an evolutionary process, based on historical experience . Muslim Modernist and reformer Sir Syed Ahmed Khan (1817-1898) began the period of south Asian Muslim self-awakening and identity, Poet Philosopher Allama Muhammad Iqbal (1877-1938), provided the philosophical explanation, and barrister Muhammad Ali Jinnah (1871-1848)translated it into the political reality of a nation state.
The evidence cited for the differences dated eleventh century, when the scholar Ai=Biruni (973-1048) observed that Hindus and Muslims differed in all matters and habits.
Allama Iqbal's explained the two-nation theory. The decision was taken in Lahore Congress in 1940.