Tuesday, February 9, 2010

Pakistan, Khilafat Movement (contd-1)

Khilafat Activists leading procession
Khilafat Movement (1919-1924) was a political movement launched mainly by the Muslims against the British rule to protect the Ottoman Empire during the aftermath of WWI.The caliphate is an Islamic system of Govt. in which the state rules under islamic laws.Caliph literally means successor or representative and emphasizes religious authority for the head of the state, known as Caliph.Ottoman empire, having takenthe side of the Central Powers during WWI, suffered a major military defeat. The treaty of Versailles (1919) reduced its territorial extent under the Treaty of Sevres (1920) and severed the territory such as Palestine, Syria, Lebanon, iraq, and Egypt. Though they assured to protect the ottoman emperer's status as caliph.
But a pro-western nationalist movement under the leadership of Kamal Ataturk, known as Kamal Pasa, led an independence war (1919-1924), and made Turket a republic of Turkey abolishing Caliphate in 1924.    
When the terms of the treaty of Serves were announced in 1920, it caused deep resentment among the Muslims. They felt betrayed. In June 1920, 90 influential Muslims wrote to Lord Chelmsford , the viceroy, informing him of their intent to start a non-cooperation movement against the govt. from Aug., until terms of the treaty with Turkey were revised. But this was of no avail as the British Prime minister Lloyd George was an implacable enemy of Turkey.
Dr. Ansari, Abdul Rahman siddiqui, Soaib Qureishi and Choudhury Khaliquzzaman.
   On this occasion about 18,000 indian muslim moved to brotherly independent muslim State Afghanistan .