Monday, February 22, 2010

Pakistan, Hindu-Muslim Riot (Contd-2)

Between  the beginning of April and end of Sept 1927, no fewer than 25 riots were reported. of which 10 occurred in the United Provinces , 6 in the Bombay Presidency, 2 each in the Punjab, the Central provinces , Bengal, Bihar and Orissa, and one in Delhi.The majority of the riots occurred during the celebration of of a religious festival of one or other of the two communities.
By far the most serious riots reported during the year was that which took place in Lahore between the 4th, and 7th of started due to the collision of a Mahomedan and two Sikhs. 27 were killed and 272 were  injured.
The riots of Kharagpur , an important railway centre far from Calcutta, also resulted in serios loss of life.two riots took place in the Kharagpur.
The year 1930-31 saw the eruption of the civil disobedience movement. It gave rise to riots and disturbances all over the country.the political disturbances took a turn to communal riots in Sukkur in Sindh in 4th and 11 th  of Aug.also it spread in Bengal.

In Assam , the communal riot took place in Digboi in lakhimpur Dt.resulting death of one hindu and three 1933-34 the communal tension was increasing through the country. on the occasion of Holy and Bakr-i-Id serious riot occurred in Ayodha.
The list of the riots were so big that Hindu-muslim unity is far from reality.
Ashutosh Varshney, a Professor of Political Science at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. his book, Ethnic conflict and civic life : Hindus and Muslims in India, was recently published by Yale University Press.Hindu-Muslim riots in India are understood to have occurred in two ways. One, the underlying and two, the proximate.
The underlying causes are linked partly to perceptions of history.Since the 1920s, Hindu nationalists believe that India is a Hindu-Nation-have argued that Muslims are fundamentally disloyal to India. Some also believe that the so called Muslim period of Indian history, stretching from the 11th century to the 18th century, was a period of hidu humiliation , when Muslim rulers ruthlessly attcked the pillars ofc Hindu culture, specially its temple of worship. Finally some Hindus also think that Muslims are essentially aggressive in nature, and a demonstration of superior brute strength is the only way to alter their behavior.The biggest exponent of such views are the Hindu nationalist ideologues, many of whom rule Gujrat, the state where riots broke out recently.
Such views are inaccurate and defy history. First of all, intolerant strains, specially in the form of Sufism, a mystical and non-textual variety of Islam prevalent not only in India but also in countries like Indonesia, Mughal rulers such as such as Akbar, in fact, built bridges across the two communities., handsomely contributing to the evolution of a common Indian Culture, in 20th century Maulana azad ,called  " the innumerable happennings of our daily life  " bear , as he put it,"the stamp of our joint endeeavour.
Moreover these riots occur mostlyin cities , in rural life only 4% of all deaths aredue to communal riots.  .