The first Europeans to show the interest in Tanganyika in the 19th. century were the missionariesof the Church Missionary Society followed by the activities of David LIvingstonesin 1866 .
Zanzibar ; Portuguese and Omani domination
Africans are known to have inhabitedboth zanzibar and Pemba islands possibly before the birth of Christ. Thus it is possible that the preent African inhabitantsof the former Sultanate consist i) of the descendantsof these ancient natives, ii)descendants of the ex-slaves andiii) of Africans who have attained Zanzibar citizenshipincluding the migratory labour force which comes and goes according to the season.Early visitors of Zanzibar and Pemba included Persians,Hidus, Jews, Arabs,Phoenicians and possibly Assyrrians. ancient African aettlers ,therefore, had contact with differnt cultures and had to adopt their economic, social, political method of organisations. The last population breakdown on an ethnic basis was made in 1958 and gave a summary of population figures as follows : Afro-arab-279,935 ; Asians other than arabs - 18,334; Europeans-507; and others-335. Arabs alone were about 47,000.