Friday, May 29, 2009

Cambodia, Colonial and post Colonial Period

Areas of french colony
Cambodia continued as a protectorate of France from 1863 to 1953, administered as part part of the colony of French Indochina, though occupied by the japanese empire from 1941 to 1945. Cambodia gained Independence from France on Nov. 1953 It became a constitutional monarchy under King Noroom Sihanouk. When french indochina was given Independence , Cambodia lost officil controlover the Mekong deltaas it was awarded to Vietnam. The actual Independence of cambodia came after the geneva conference to settle the dispute in the french-Indochina war.
Neutrality was the central element of cambodian foreign policy during the 1950s and 1960s . By the mid-1960s, parts of Cambodia's eastern provinces were serving as bases for north Vietnamese Army and Viet Cong (NVA/Vforces operating against South vietnam, and the port of Sihanoukville was being used to supply tham.As NVA/VC activity grew , the US and South vietnam became concerned, and in 1969,the US began a series of air raids against NVA/VC base areas inside Cambodia.
Throughout the 960s , domestic politics polarized.Opposition grew within the middle class and among leftists, including Paris educated leaderssuch as Son Sen, Ieng Sary and saloth Sar 9later known as PolPot), who led an insurgencyunder the clandestine Communist Communist Party of Kampuchea (CPK).