Sunday, May 3, 2009

Chad, Decolonisation

During world war II, Chad was the first French colony to rejoin the Allies ( Aug. 26,1940) after the defeat of france by Germany. Under the administration of Felix Eboue, France's first black colonial governor, a military column, commanded by ColonelPhilippe Leclec de Hauteclocque, and including two battalions of Sara troops, moved north from N'Djamena (then Fort Lamy) to engage axis forces in Lybia,where, in in partnership with the British Army'sLong range Desert group, they captured Kufra.
After caca war ended local parties started to evelop in Chad. The First to be born was the conservative chadian Democratic union (UDT) which represented French commercial intersts and bloc of traditional leaders composed of Muslim and Ouaddaian nobility. Within a few years a more radical formation was created, the Chadian progressive party (PPT), eventually headed by francois Tombalbaye, which was to win pre-independence elections.
safter a referendom on territorial autonomy in sept. 1958, french Equatorial Africa was dissolved and its four constituent states - Gabon,Congo (Brazzaville), the central African republic, and Chad became autonomous members of the French community in nov. 1958. and on Aug. 1960 Chad became independent.
The Tombalbaye Era (1960-75)
Tombalbaye was an autocratic ruler , he banned all political parties except PPT, and started concentration of his powers.He put all the opponents , real or imaginary , into custody as prisners.he suppressed a Tax Revolt by killing 500 agitators in 1965. After a year National Liberation front of Chad was formed who created a military base to oust Tambalbaye resulting a bloody civil war.ultimately tombalbye was killed by a military coup in 1975. Amilitary rule followed and lasted for 1975-78.