Demands for Swaraj or self rule, in India had been growing increasingly strong so that the British Govt. began to feel at the beginning of the thirties that India needed to move towards dominion status and hence they arranged three rounds of Round Table Conference following the Simon Commission's report which came out on 7 June, 1930. The British Govt. arranged the following Round Table Conference :
1. First Round table Conference (Nov 1930-Jan 1931),
2. Second Round Table Conference ((Sep - Dec 1931)
3. Third Round Table Conference ( Nov - Dec 1932 )
The British Govt did not pay any heed to the protest of the Congress. In accordance with the viceroy's declaration of 31 oct,1929, there was a Conference of the representatives of His Majesty's Govt.and those of India.The Round Table Conference was officially opened by King George v on Thursday, Nov 13,1930 and chaired by the British Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald. The Indian national Congress along with Indian Business leaders, kept away from the conference, as many of them were in jail for their participation in civil disobedience. The session continued till 19 jan 1931.
The Conference was attended by 89 members; 16 from British Parties , 16 from the Indian states and 57 from British India.
Though Congress did not join the conference but 57 eminent leaders from different organisation like M.A.Jinnah, Sapru, Muhammad Ali and others from British India attended the Conference.